Understanding Email Marketing Metrics in 2022

Getting the most from email marketing requires close monitoring of key performance metrics. In this post, we offer a primer on opens, clicks, bounces, deliveries, and more.

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Drive Email Engagement with Embedded Video

Embedded videos in marketing emails can increase clicks by upwards of 300%. Here’s our primer on dos, don’ts, and getting started.

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Email Marketing: Tips for Getting Started

Looking to launch an email marketing program? Here’s a quick rundown of the basics from longtime contributor Carolyn Nye, addressing subscriber growth, vendor selection, frequency, and more.

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7 Reasons Why Marketing Emails Fail

Underperforming marketing emails are often an indicator of overall program deterioration. Reductions in clicks, conversions, and revenue are typically symptoms of a larger problem.

In this post, I’ll address seven causes of poor email performance and how to fix them.

Email Not Reaching Inbox

All email marketing platforms will report a deliverability rate — the percentage of emails that recipients received. Usually this is 98% or more.

However, what your email provider is not reporting is how many of those delivered emails ended up in the inbox versus a subfolder, such as spam or junk. Unfortunately, no tool detects that percentage.

Encourage inboxing by:

  • Avoiding spam triggers such as using all caps or excessive exclamation points,
  • Keeping domain and IP address reputation high,
  • Staying off blacklists,
  • Maintaining high subscriber engagement.

Not Optimizing for Gmail

According to Litmus; in April 2022 Gmail was the second most popular global email client (behind Apple), accounting for roughly 30% of the market. In 2013, Gmail added tabs in the recipient’s inbox, leading most marketing emails to be filtered to Promotions.

Gmail recently released a few new features to help marketers stand out in the Promotions tab. You can check how your emails will filter for free using the Litmus Gmail tab tool.

Litmus's Gmail tab toolLitmus's Gmail tab tool

Litmus’s free Gmail tab tool will detect where in Gmail an email will end up.

Marketers can now boost their promotional emails in Gmail by highlighting an offer, offer code, adding a promotions preview image, and defining a logo URL that will appear as a custom icon next to the From line.

Screenshot of enhancements in Gmaiil Promotions tabScreenshot of enhancements in Gmaiil Promotions tab

Marketers can now boost promotional emails in Gmail by highlighting an offer, offer code, a preview image, and a logo.

Gmail for Developers offers documentation on how to code emails for these features. In addition, Gmail has several email partners that include promotional annotations in their software, including Litmus, Salesforce, Sailthru, Oracle Bronto, and more.

Gmail also features relevant promotional emails within the primary tab to help add more visibility to your messages.

The Wrong Offer

Offers are tricky. Always test email offers to help determine which works best for your audience. In my experience, performance can vary drastically depending on the product and service.

  • For product sales, usually a gift or a pre-populated cart helps. The latter auto-loads a free item into a recipient’s shopping cart.
  • Free shipping has lost some appeal as most retailers offer it in some capacity.
  • Dollar-off offers tend to perform a bit better than percentage-off.

Make sure to pair the offer with your recipients. For example, a small amount off will not likely appeal to a high-end jewelry buyer.

Outdated Data

Email data can become obsolete quickly. According to Return Path, on average only 56% of subscribers remain on an email list after 12 months! Of those that remain, roughly 47% are “active” — having opened and read at least one email.

While these statistics seem scary, there are several ways to maintain an engaged list.

  • Removing unengaged subscribers.
  • Running email verification on any subscriber that hasn’t been emailed in over 30 days.
  • Encouraging new email subscriptions.
  • Keep email frequency low to new subscribers to prevent immediate opt-outs.

I addressed email database cleaning tips last year.

Too Many Emails

Even the most loyal customers will eventually unsubscribe if you send them too many emails. Frequency in email marketing is a fine art and requires testing and monitoring. A few unsubscribes may seem inconsequential, but too many will impact performance.

Each subscriber has unique tolerance levels. But no one wants to receive multiple emails a day from a single sender. I recently unsubscribed to a few of my favorite brands that sent upwards of 15 emails a week.

Remember that elevated unsubscribed rates will hurt your reputation score, leading to more emails in junk or spam folders.

In my experience, two to three emails per week are optimal for ecommerce retailers. Again, testing is critical.

Mismatched Content

Irrelevant content drives unsubscribes. This means understanding your customers — what they have searched and purchased. Match email content — product recommendations, notifications — to those interests.

Personalization can help keep content relevant. I recently received an email from the Red Cross promoting upcoming blood drives that provided a good, basic example of personalization. The email included blood drive locations near me instead of a generic “find event” button.

Poor Subject, From, Preheader

Always preview the combination of your “Subject” line, “From” line, and preheader, especially on mobile. Keep subject lines short with the preheader as an extension. Do not repeat words.

Zurb offers a free subject-line preview tool.

How to Integrate SMS into Email Marketing

SMS marketing is booming. The rise of smartphones and text messaging provided a new vehicle for companies to communicate with customers. Slowly, short message service — SMS, synonymous with text messaging — has supplemented many companies’ email marketing efforts.

In this post, I’ll review how to integrate SMS into your email program.

SMS vs. Email

Email marketing is effective because it directly connects to a customer or prospect. Nowadays, most recipients receive emails on their smartphones, making the channel even more effective.

However, email has challenges that SMS does not. First, email senders face deliverability hurdles. Senders are at the mercy of large email platforms such as Gmail, Yahoo, and others that control the filtering or blocking of messages. Recent statistics show that 99% of email users check their inboxes daily. Still, senders wait until a subscriber checks and then hope she reads the content.

SMS offers near-instant communication. Most recipients read text messages very soon after arriving. Wearable smartwatches mean text-message recipients no longer have to be near their phones. The immediacy and intimacy of SMS translate into a powerful way to connect with consumers.

Launching SMS

SMS can provide superior customer service. Examples include the hospitality industry confirming reservations and airlines updating passengers on flight status.

Screenshot of a text message from United, announcing a delayed flightScreenshot of a text message from United, announcing a delayed flight

Airlines use SMS to update passengers on flight status. This example is from United.

The first step in implementing SMS is to confirm customers want to receive those messages. Many ecommerce brands use SMS for basic order info. Customers often prefer that method for shipping and other updates. So it’s a good idea to provide this option during checkout.

Screenshot of a checkout page with a box to provide a cell phone numberScreenshot of a checkout page with a box to provide a cell phone number

Customers often prefer shipping and other updates via text. So it’s a good idea to provide this option during checkout.

Beyond transactional info, SMS can be an effective marketing channel provided, again, customers want to receive the messages. Include SMS sign-up options throughout the site with clear frequency expectations and instructions for opting out. Providing value in exchange for a phone number can improve sign-ups.

Strategies for SMS Success

Obtain expressed permission. The U.S. Telephone Consumer Protection Act requires businesses to receive explicit consent to send text messages. The requirement is much stricter than the U.S. CAN-SPAM Act, which does not require an opt-in, only that brands honor opt-outs. While it’s not required, include opt-out instructions with every text.

Reintroduce your brand. A drawback to SMS is identifying the sender. There’s no “From:” line as with email. Recipients only see a number. Thus, it’s essential to make clear on every text message who it’s from.

Screenshot of a text message from Verizon with first sentence reading, "Hi. It's Verizon."Screenshot of a text message from Verizon with first sentence reading, "Hi. It's Verizon."

Verizon identifies itself with every text message.

Frequency. Send far fewer SMS messages than emails. Start with intervals between texts of at least 10 days. As with email, testing will determine the best frequency to minimize opt-outs and drive engagement. The type of product or service impacts frequency. For example, if consumers purchase your products every six months, the SMS frequency should follow that schedule.

Screenshot of two text messages from Red Cross showing dates about 10 days apartScreenshot of two text messages from Red Cross showing dates about 10 days apart

Red Cross’s SMS frequency is roughly every 10 days.

Messages types. Be careful with promotional messages. Don’t overdo it. A good strategy is to alternate between transactional and promotional. This will keep recipients engaged and reduce opt-outs.

Complement Email

SMS reach is finite. Far fewer consumers choose to receive text messages versus email. A text is a personal form of communication for many, reserved only for limited acquaintances. Nonetheless, done correctly, SMS complements email — increasing engagement, customer service, and conversions.

14 Free WordPress Plugins to Build an Email List

Engaged email subscribers are a key revenue driver for many ecommerce companies. But building that list is not easy, with much inbox competition. Fortunately, WooCommerce and other WordPress users can select free plugins for successful email list building.

Here is a rundown of WordPress plugins to build an email list. There are tools for creating and automating pop-ups and opt-in forms, driving and managing newsletters subscriptions, capturing leads, and more. All of these plugins are free. Most offer premium plans as well.

Plugins to Build Email Lists

Sumo offers several tools to build an email list. Use the List Builder app to generate an email collection field after page load, after a mouse hovers, embedded within an article, as a call-to-action button, upon user scroll, and more. Sumo also offers a Welcome Mat, Smart Bar, and Share buttons for social. Sumo integrates with WooCommerce to create unique offers and discount forms. Price: Free up to 10,000 emails per month. Premium plans start at $39 per month.

Home page of SumoHome page of Sumo


Icegram is a popular pop-up builder for lead capture, call to action, and email marketing. Use Icegram Engage to show the right messages at the right time. Capture leads using attractive pop-ups, slide-ins, opt-ins, and welcome bars. Access 50-plus free pop-up templates and action bar themes. Set up exit-intent pop-up campaigns, action bars, badges, stickies, inline opt-in, fullscreen overlay, ribbons, sidebar panel, and more. Price: Basic is free. Premium plans start at $97 per month.

Email Subscribers and Newsletters, from Icegram, is a newsletter plugin to collect leads and send automated post notifications and email broadcasts — and manage them in one place. Price: Basic is free. Premium plans start at $6.50 per month.

Rainmaker, another tool from Icegram, is a plugin for creating forms with ready-made templates. Display forms anywhere on your WordPress site using a shortcode. Rainmaker automatically saves all form submissions to the WordPress database. Connect your mailing list service, and automatically subscribe leads to a list. Price: Basic is free. Premium plans start at $2.25 per month.

Home page of RainmakerHome page of Rainmaker


Newsletter is an email marketing system to create, send, and track emails and responsive newsletters. Utilize subscriber lists and advanced targeting with your campaigns. Manage user subscriptions, email automation, follow-up notifications, and list building. Price: Basic is free. Premium versions start at $69.

Optin Forms is a simple and easy-to-use opt-in form plugin for new subscribers. Choose from five unique layouts and customize to match your company’s brand. Integrates with major email services, including AWeber, iContact, Mailchimp, GetResponse, and more. Price: Free.

MailPoet is a plugin for creating, sending, and managing newsletters in WordPress. Add a subscription form to your site. Manage your subscribers and lists. Create and automate post notifications and welcome emails. Price: Free for the first 1,000 subscribers. Premium starts at $13 per month.

Home page of MailPoetHome page of MailPoet


Klaviyo helps businesses engage consumers across email, SMS, web, and in-app. Leverage Klaviyo’s free form builder. Build fly-outs, pop-ups, and embeds. Target forms to specific segments, devices, or pages. Use the library of pre-built forms and automated campaigns, such as drip messages, abandoned cart reminders, and sale promotions — or design your own. Price: Free for up to 500 emails to 250 contacts. Premium starts at $20 per month.

Hustle offers simple opt-in forms, targeted marketing pop-ups, and designer-made templates for different uses (e.g., Black Friday, giveaway, newsletter sign-up). Set up a range of behavior triggers for your pop-ups and slide-ins, and schedule when the messages deploy. Price: Free plan for one opt-in method. Pro plans start at $5 per month.

HubSpot offers several tools to build an email list. Create nearly any kind of form and pop-up using a simple drag-and-drop builder. Build responsive email newsletters inside WordPress, and nurture leads with automated campaigns. Manage your database with HubSpot’s free CRM, and group contacts with the built-in list builder. HubSpot comes with 20-plus pre-designed email templates. Price: Free.

Home page of HubSpotHome page of HubSpot


MailMunch lets you create an opt-in form as a pop-up, embed, top bar, scroll box, and sidebar. Apply themes, A/B testing, targeting, exit intent, and analytics. Sync your newsletter subscribers to Mailchimp, Constant Contact, AWeber, GetResponse, Campaign Monitor, and more. Price: Free. Premium is $13.99 per month.

AWeber is an email marketing platform with automated messaging, landing page builder, ecommerce pages, and web push notifications. Start with a pre-built template or drag-and-drop editor. Embed AWeber landing pages and sign-up forms on your WordPress site. Price: Free for up to 500 subscribers. Premium plans start at $16.15 per month.

MC4WP is a plugin to grow your Mailchimp lists and write better emails. Create attractive opt-in forms or integrate with any existing form on your site, such as comment, contact us, or checkout. Price: Free to 2,000 contacts. Premium plans start at $59 per year.

Sendinblue is an all-in-one email marketing platform. Create custom subscription forms and easily integrate them into your posts, pages, or sidebars to grow your list. Manage the list with advanced segmentation. Use the drag-and-drop builder or template library to create and send newsletters. Develop automated marketing and transactional emails. Price: Free up to 300 emails per day and unlimited contacts. Premium plans start at $25 per month.

Home page of SendinblueHome page of Sendinblue


iOS 15: Impact on Email Marketing to Date

On Sept 20, 2021, Apple released iOS 15. Among its new features is “Mail Privacy Protection,” which does two things:

  • Automatically loads all images from emails,
  • Hides IP addresses and the location of email recipients.

For years, email service providers have embedded a hidden, 1×1-pixel image to track opens. That image was automatically downloaded by recipients when they opened an email, which providers then logged.

Now, however, all recipients on iOS 15 devices — iPhones, iPads, Apple Watches — register as an open, regardless of whether they took that action.

The result is inflated open rates.

Impact to Date

Apple iPhones are roughly 48% of the U.S. smartphone market. And in 2022 most email opens are on a phone — upwards to 75%. Thus approximately 36% of all U.S. email recipients (48% x 75%) could be using iOS 15.

The unknown is how many iOS 15 users have enabled Mail Privacy Protection. However, Apple’s description — “Protect Mail activity. Hide IP address and privately load all remote content” — likely entices most users to opt-in.

Consider the following scenario.

Email recipients, U.S.:

  • iOS 15: 36%
  • All others: 64%

Actual historical commercial open rate, average:

Open rates due to iOS 15, U.S.:

  • iOS users: 100%
  • All others: 20%
  • Total, blended: (36% x 100%) + (64% x 20%) = 48.8%

In short, an average commercial email list could report open rates of 48.8% due to iOS 15 instead of likely actual open rates of roughly 20%.

That calculation, however, assumes (i) all users of Apple mobile devices have upgraded to iOS 15, (ii) all have opted into Mail Privacy Protection, and (iii) all live in the U.S., where the iPhone has a 48% market share. Worldwide, the iPhone’s market share is roughly 15%.

Actual Open Rate Increases

The above example represents the maximum impact. But my clients — large corporations, mainly —  have seen open rates as roughly doubling, not to 48.8%.

Click rates for those clients have remained constant. However, click-to-open rates have decreased due to the artificially high percentage of opens.

Here are the averages I’ve seen among, again, large corporations.

Open Rates:

  • Before iOS 15: 6% – 12%
  • After:  18% – 25%

Click Rates:

  • Before and after: 1% – 4% (no change)

Click-to-open Rates:

  • Before: 7% – 15%
  • After: 1% – 5%

Strategy Implications

Testing email based on open rates is compromised. That includes subject lines, time of day, and day of week. However, an A/B test on, say, subject lines should still correctly identify the winner assuming the ratio of iOS 15 recipients is consistent for both groups. My clients continue to rely on A/B tests for that reason.

What would not be accurate is a test that compares subject lines from before and after iOS 15. An example is 2020 holiday emails versus 2021.

Customer journeys that rely on email opens are also compromised. For example, a journey flow is likely inaccurate if it sends a unique nurturing message to recipients who opened but did not click. All iOS 15 users would receive that message regardless of their actions.

A workaround for many senders is to use clicks to dictate the journey path. Some separate iOS 15 recipients from all others and create separate journey paths for each group. That separation is likely the best option if your email service provider can identify recipients’ devices.

Industry Reaction

Consumers generally support Mail Privacy Protection. However, email marketing professionals understand the unintended consequences. Before iOS 15, a consumer who never opened a commercial email would eventually stop receiving it. Not so afterward.

Moreover, open rates help marketers understand recipients’ preferences to adjust content and frequency accordingly. That, too, has gone away. As my colleague Armando Roggio has stated, vegetarians could now receive promotions for pulled pork.

How to Set Up a Paid Newsletter

Paid newsletters are driving profits in the creator economy. Podcasters, YouTube personalities, bloggers, musicians, business coaches, and the like are collectively called creators. Creators who are compensated directly or via a social platform represent the creator economy. And the creator economy is one of the fastest-growing forms of ecommerce.

Paid Newsletters

Paid newsletters are becoming popular, although they are just one of the ways creators are earning a living. Software-as-a-service platforms such as Substack, ConvertKit, Memberful, and Mailchimp have made it relatively easy for creators to sell newsletter subscriptions.

“We believe that what you read matters, and great writing is valuable. We’re building a future where writers can flourish by being paid directly by readers,” says the Substack home page.

How to Start

Value and a lack of advertising typically separate paid newsletters from free. When they pay for a newsletter, subscribers expect to get something of value in return.

Value. Identify what purpose the newsletter serves and what makes it valuable to the reader. Will the newsletter offer time-sensitive cryptocurrency tips? Will there be exclusive tutorials? How about detailed case studies?

For example, Indify’s Daily Flag is a paid subscription newsletter that uses social media data to identify artists who have the potential to become superstars. The newsletter is valuable among creators.

Screenshot of Indify's Daily Flag newsletterScreenshot of Indify's Daily Flag newsletter

Indify’s Daily Flag creates value for thousands of paying subscribers.

Audience. The value a newsletter offers is related to the audience it serves. Some creators build the audience first. Perhaps they have a podcast and have encouraged listeners to sign up for free notifications of new episodes. That audience might also be interested in a premium newsletter. So the creator will try to upgrade them.

Other creators use advertising to build an audience, either promoting a free email subscription and then seeking to upgrade the audience to paid or by using ads to promote the paid subscription directly.

Facebook Leads ads, for example, are a good way to get subscribers.

Price. Indify’s Daily Flag costs $50 per month. Lenny’s Newsletter, which covers product, growth, and business topics, runs $15 per month. The Bitcoin Forecast by Willy Woo is $150 per month.

The point is that newsletter subscription prices vary. The price is relative to the value for subscribers while also generating a profit. A creator could consider what competitors are charging or A/B test subscription prices to learn what works best. Some creators could charge more if they built the audience first.

Schedule. Develop a publication schedule and stick to it. Paying subscribers expect their email newsletter to arrive as promised. If the newsletter is supposed to go out every Monday, it had better arrive on that day.

It can be a good idea to practice building the newsletter. Determine how long it takes and what problems might arise during production.

The Grind

Researching, writing, and publishing a paid newsletter can feel like a grind.

Gary Vaynerchuk, the business and marketing guru, has repeatedly told creators to pay their dues and put in the hard work of audience building. Vaynerchuk began by publishing wine videos on YouTube five days a week for roughly six years.

Starting a paid newsletter will take persistence. Be prepared to compose newsletters even when there are few subscribers, putting in as much energy as when there are thousands.

The Platform

Creators looking to earn money with a newsletter need a method of composing, distributing, and getting paid.

Composing. That act of writing the newsletter can be done on Google Docs, Microsoft Word, or even a text editor.

Images can be edited and resized using Adobe Photoshop, Canva, or system tools such as Apple’s Preview.

Distributing. SaaS email platforms manage subscribers, provide formatting tools, and send newsletters. Specialty offerings such as Substack have built-in payment tools.

When selecting a platform, consider deliverability and fees.

First, the platform should have put the newsletter in subscribers’ inboxes 80% of the time or more on average. The newsletter content will impact deliverability, but the email provider can do a lot to help.

Second, understand all of the platform’s charges. How many subscribers and deployments are allowed on free plans? What features are included? How will fees increase as the number of subscribers grows?

Payment. Depending on the platform, payments can take a few forms.

  • Complete integration. Payment processing is built-in to the platform.
  • Close integration. The creator connects a Stripe or PayPal account to the platform.
  • No integration. The creator accepts payments and manually adds subscribers to the platform.

Each of these options has fees. For example, Substack charges 10% of the subscription price plus processing fees of about 2.9% + 30 cents per transaction.

If a creator had 1,000 subscribers paying $15 per month for $15,000 in gross revenue, Substack’s take would be roughly $2,135.

Charts: Global Email Volume, Users, Marketing

The world’s first email was sent in the early 1970s. Since then email has evolved into a vital digital marketing tool.

The number of global emails sent has climbed each year as the internet has become more accessible. Over 306 billion emails were sent daily in 2020. That number will rise to roughly 376.4 billion per day by 2025.

Despite the popularity of mobile messaging and chat apps, email remains an important element of everyday life. The number of global email users reached roughly 4 billion in 2020 and will likely climb to 4.6 billion by 2025. The worldwide population in January 2022 is approximately 7.9 billion.

Recipients are spending less time reading brand emails. From January to August 2021, global recipients spent an average of 10 seconds reading a single brand email. That reading time peaked in 2018 at 13.4 seconds per email before declining in recent years, leaving marketers with an even smaller window to engage readers.

Email Challenges, Tactics

Marketers have made strides in overcoming some of the challenges of email marketing. However, they continue to face difficulties. Validity (a data provider) and Demand Metric (a marketing platform) surveyed (PDF) email marketers worldwide from large and small companies — B2B and B2C — to examine their challenges and tactics.

According to the survey report, marketers in 2020 were less likely to use basic email marketing tactics such as deliverability optimization and list management compared to 2019.

Holiday Email Marketing Trends, Examples for 2021

It’s the busiest time for email marketing. Retailers are preparing and sending their holiday campaigns. Most use proven, tried-and-true email tactics.

In this post, I’ll review a few email marketing examples in this 2021 season from leading retailers.

Eddie Bauer

Eddie Bauer is applying several proven email marketing practices. First is a “cart starter” to initiate the purchase process, beginning with the subject line: “Here’s $10 To Start Your Holiday Shopping!” It has a dual purpose of a $10 savings and a reminder to get started.

Consumers have endless choices for buying gifts. Deciding factors are typically price, convenience, availability, selection, and quality. Enticing shoppers to populate a cart facilitates abandoned cart reminders if necessary. And auto-loading a coupon code or gift offer can close sales.

Screenshot of an Eddie Bauer holiday emailScreenshot of an Eddie Bauer holiday email

This subject line from an Eddie Bauer email — “Here’s $10 To Start Your Holiday Shopping!” — has a dual purpose of a $10 savings and a reminder to get started.

Upping the email frequency is another proven practice. Thus far, Eddie Bauer has gone from sending a few weekly emails to daily to, most recently, twice a day.

Screenshot of an email inbox showing many Eddie Bauer emails.Screenshot of an email inbox showing many Eddie Bauer emails.

Eddie Bauer has gone from sending a few weekly emails to daily to, most recently, twice a day.

An Adweek survey found that 99% of consumers check their email at least daily. Many check upwards of 20 times per day. A subscriber could easily miss, say, a morning email. But an afternoon message could catch her attention.

Increasing the frequency requires variations on subject lines, preheaders, and body copy. Do not resend the same or similar email more than once daily. Moreover, unique content improves deliverability. Similar (or exact) subject lines from the same sender can trip spam algorithms to block the deployment. Emails from Eddie Bauer have unique subject lines, body copy, offers.


Loft, the women’s clothing retailer, emphasizes its rewards program in holiday emails, another proven strategy. Rewards encourage loyalty and repeat purchases. The most effective programs allow flexibility as to when and where consumers access the rewards offers.

Sample email from Loft for rewards points.Sample email from Loft for rewards points.

Loft lets rewards shoppers decide when they shop and on what channel.


Shoppers in 2021 are mindful of inventory shortages and delivery delays. Costco and many other retailers have responded by launching early holiday promotions. Costco’s example email below features a variety of products as many shoppers are unsure what gift to buy.

Plus, a Deloitte survey found that 51% of consumers will purchase something for themselves while shopping for others. Bundled offers — such as buy one, get one free — encourage this behavior.

Screenshot of a holiday email promotion from Costco Screenshot of a holiday email promotion from Costco

Retailer Costco started holiday email promotions on November 1.


Direct physical mail can complement email promotions and drive online traffic. I’ve seen direct mail campaigns produce a 20% lift in conversions. Direct mail during the holidays can also reach procrastinating shoppers.

Shutterfly deploys direct mail to great effect, as shown in the image below of a physical postcard.

Image of a postcard reading "Holiday Cards and Gifts"Image of a postcard reading "Holiday Cards and Gifts"

This physical postcard from Shutterfly complements email campaigns and drives traffic to the company’s website.