Entrepreneur Loses $6 Million, Bounces Back

I’m always amazed at the resilience of many successful business people, those that overcome big-time failures. Warren Buffett summed it up when he said, to paraphrase, “Success is the process of overcoming mistakes.”

Shakil Prasla recently made a big mistake. An astute ecommerce operator and owner, Prasla purchased in late 2020 Covid-related protective gloves at roughly twice the ultimate selling price. His company, Gloves.com, lost $6 million.

He told me, “It took three months for our products to arrive. By then vaccines were out, and demand fell. We panicked. We did a fire sale at a 50% discount from our purchase price. We lost about $6 million. It sucks.”

I first interviewed Prasla for this podcast back in 2019. He was as transparent then as now, sharing his experiences to help others. He did that again recently when he and I discussed his gloves mistake and moving forward.

What follows is our entire audio conversation and a transcript, which has been edited for length and clarity.

Eric Bandholz: You and I first spoke on this podcast two years ago. You were building an impressive portfolio of ecommerce businesses with borrowed money. But you experienced a setback earlier this year.

Shakil Prasla: Yes. The path that I chose has pros and cons. It’s risky. Taking on debt requires cash flow to repay it. When the cash flow is not there, you have to pull from somewhere or borrow even more money. Most of my decisions have worked out. But some have not. I’m currently in a crisis where one hasn’t worked out. But I’ve learned a lot about myself. I would do it again.

Bandholz: What happened?

Prasla: Last year during the pandemic, we started getting inquiries about masks, gowns, and gloves. We didn’t carry those products, but our manufacturers in China told us they could make them. So we started importing masks and gowns and learning about personal protective equipment.

We weren’t doing it on a large scale, but we built some good relationships. And during the summer, prices tanked for masks and gowns. So we focused on gloves. I saw long-term potential for that business. Dentists, physicians, nurses, tattoo artists, barbers — all will use gloves, even after Covid.

So I bought Gloves.com, the domain name. I believe in those exact domain-match keywords for search engine optimization and branding credibility. So I bought Gloves.com for seven figures. I had never spent that much on a domain. And, separately, we bought a bunch of inventory.

In Q4 2020, when we bought Gloves.com, all was going well. We were making 30% profit margins with high volume. I decided to focus on scale to gain even more customers. I went all in. We bought over $10 million in inventory. Coordinating all of that — manufacturing, containers — created a production delay. Manufacturers like to say, “It’s going to ship in one to two weeks.” That’s never the case. You have to double it. For us, the delay was extensive. And by the time the container shipped, the Long Beach, California port was already congested.

It took three months for our products to arrive. By then vaccines were out, and demand fell. We panicked. We did a fire sale at a 50% discount from our purchase price. We lost about $6 million. It sucks. It wasn’t investor money. It was two partners and me.

Bandholz: Why didn’t you hold on to the inventory?

Prasla: Covid inflated the price of PPE products. Before Covid, a box of gloves cost $3 to $4. During Covid, it increased to $15. We paid $10 per box. Once the demand fell, the prices returned to pre-Covid levels. We knew that would occur, but we didn’t think it would come so quickly.

So having paid $10 per box, our gloves were now selling in the U.S. for $5. We ended up selling a good portion of the inventory to non-U.S. customers in regions that lacked vaccines.

I violated the number one rule of investing: Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.

Bandholz: Are you bankrupt now?

Prasla: No, but I am cash flow poor.

My partners and I have had a lot of low points, a lot of emotional breakdowns. It carries to our other businesses, our relationships. It affects our health, our sleep, and other aspects of our lifestyle. I’m the heaviest I’ve ever been. But I’ve accepted it. I’m much happier now than a few months ago.

We live in a culture where people share the good stories but not the bad. But we learn from those bad ones. I’ve learned that going for quick money can result in quick losses. I need to stick to what I know best, which was predictable cash flow.

Bandholz: How long will it take to dig yourself out of this?

Prasla: Two years. I’m going to focus methodically on my companies that have the best long-term prospects. And Gloves.com is going to be a sustainable business. We’re starting to see an uptick. Our goal is to grow that company and sell it in two years. We’ve sold a lot of the expensive inventory and replenished it with cheaper alternatives.

Bandholz: Did you have to sell your house or your cars?

Prasla: No, I kept the house and the cars. I still have the same level of personal debt. I changed one mindset: I’m no longer a brand whore. I still need nice clothing and things. I want to spoil my wife. But I spoke with my family and said, “We’re going to pause on lavish expenses, such as travel. We’re cutting expenses to get through this.”

Bandholz: So this experience hasn’t convinced you to live debt-free?

Prasla: I get a thrill from carrying debt. It creates a surge of energy, knowing that I need to keep making these payments. Beyond that, it’s the return-on-investment aspect. Your dollar goes way further by borrowing, even when buying businesses.

Here’s an example. Say I buy an ecommerce brand for $1 million at roughly three times its annual profit of $333,000. Without debt, my ROI on the $1 million is 33%. But if I borrowed money — typically the U.S. Small Business Administration will finance with 10% to 20% down — the return on my money is much higher.

So with that $1 million I can buy multiple businesses. It’s much riskier, but I’m okay with that.

Bandholz: But you’re not buying anything for two years. Did I hear that right?

Prasla: That’s right. I’m not going to buy anything. I need to focus on growing my existing brands. Plus buying brands usually involves enlarging our team. All of that takes funding, which I don’t have now.

Bandholz: All of us are grateful to you for coming on the show and opening up about what happened with Gloves.com. I know you. You’re an amazing person, a pillar of the community. And now you have another link on the chain of the knowledge, so to speak. How can people reach out?

Prasla: My website is ShakilPrasla.com. My email address is on that site. I’m also on Twitter and LinkedIn.

How To Build An E-Commerce Site With Angular 11, Commerce Layer And Paypal

Nowadays it’s essential to have an online presence when running a business. A lot more shopping is done online than in previous years. Having an e-commerce store allows shop owners to open up other streams of revenue they couldn’t take advantage of with just a brick and mortar store. Other shop owners however, run their businesses online entirely without a physical presence. This makes having an online store crucial.

Sites such as Etsy, Shopify and Amazon make it easy to set up a store pretty quickly without having to worry about developing a site. However, there may be instances where shop owners may want a personalized experience or maybe save on the cost of owning a store on some of these platforms.

Headless e-commerce API platforms provide backends that store sites can interface with. They manage all processes and data related to the store like customer, orders, shipments, payments, and so on. All that’s needed is a frontend to interact with this information. This gives owners a lot of flexibility when it comes to deciding how their customers will experience their online store and how they choose to run it.

In this article, we will cover how to build an e-commerce store using Angular 11. We shall use Commerce Layer as our headless e-commerce API. Although there may be tonnes of ways to process payments, we’ll demonstrate how to use just one, Paypal.


Before building the app, you need to have Angular CLI installed. We shall use it to initialize and scaffold the app. If you don’t have it installed yet, you can get it through npm.

npm install -g @angular/cli

You’ll also need a Commerce Layer developer account. Using the developer account, you will need to create a test organization and seed it with test data. Seeding makes it easier to develop the app first without worrying about what data you’ll have to use. You can create an account at this link and an organization here.

Lastly, you will need a Paypal Sandbox account. Having this type of account will allow us to test transactions between businesses and users without risking actual money. You can create one here. A sandbox account has a test business and test personal account already created for it.

Commerce Layer And Paypal Config

To make Paypal Sandbox payments possible on Commerce Layer, you’ll need to set up API keys. Head on over to the accounts overview of your Paypal developer account. Select a business account and under the API credentials tab of the account details, you will find the Default Application under REST Apps.

To associate your Paypal business account with your Commerce Layer organization, go to your organization’s dashboard. Here you will add a Paypal payment gateway and a Paypal payment method for your various markets. Under Settings > Payments, select Payment Gateways > Paypal and add your Paypal client Id and secret.

After creating the gateway, you will need to create a Paypal payment method for each market you are targeting to make Paypal available as an option. You’ll do this under Settings > Payments > Payment Methods > New Payment Method.

A Note About Routes Used

Commerce Layer provides a route for authentication and another different set of routes for their API. Their /oauth/token authentication route exchanges credentials for a token. This token is required to access their API. The rest of the API routes take the pattern /api/:resource.

The scope of this article only covers the frontend portion of this app. I opted to store the tokens server side, use sessions to track ownership, and provide http-only cookies with a session id to the client. This will not be covered here as it is outside the scope of this article. However, the routes remain the same and exactly correspond to the Commerce Layer API. Although, there are a couple of custom routes not available from the Commerce Layer API that we’ll use. These mainly deal with session management. I’ll point these out as we get to them and describe how you can achieve a similar result.

Another inconsistency you may notice is that the request bodies differ from what the Commerce Layer API requires. Since the requests are passed on to another server to get populated with a token, I structured the bodies differently. This was to make it easier to send requests. Whenever there are any inconsistencies in the request bodies, these will be pointed out in the services.

Since this is out of scope, you will have to decide how to store tokens securely. You’ll also need to slightly modify request bodies to match exactly what the Commerce Layer API requires. When there is an inconsistency, I will link to the API reference and guides detailing how to correctly structure the body.

App Structure

To organize the app, we will break it down into four main parts. A better description of what each of the modules does is given under their corresponding sections:

  1. the core module,
  2. the data module,
  3. the shared module,
  4. the feature modules.

The feature modules will group related pages and components together. There will be four feature modules:

  1. the auth module,
  2. the product module,
  3. the cart module,
  4. the checkout module.

As we get to each module, I’ll explain what its purpose is and break down its contents.

Below is a tree of the src/app folder and where each module resides.

├── app
│ ├── core
│ ├── data
│ ├── features
│ │ ├── auth
│ │ ├── cart
│ │ ├── checkout
│ │ └── products
└── shared

Generating The App And Adding Dependencies

We’ll begin by generating the app. Our organization will be called The LIme Brand and will have test data already seeded by Commerce Layer.

ng new lime-app

We’ll need a couple of dependencies. Mainly Angular Material and Until Destroy. Angular Material will provide components and styling. Until Destroy automatically unsubscribes from observables when components are destroyed. To install them run:

npm install @ngneat/until-destroy
ng add @angular/material


When adding addresses to Commerce Layer, an alpha-2 country code needs to be used. We’ll add a json file containing these codes to the assets folder at assets/json/country-codes.json. You can find this file linked here.


The components we’ll create share some global styling. We shall place them in styles.css which can be found at this link.


Our configuration will consist of two fields. The apiUrl which should point to the Commerce Layer API. apiUrl is used by the services we will create to fetch data. The clientUrl should be the domain the app is running on. We use this when setting redirect URLs for Paypal. You can find this file at this link.

Shared Module

The shared module will contain services, pipes, and components shared across the other modules.

ng g m shared

It consists of three components, one pipe, and two services. Here’s what that will look like.

├── components
│ ├── item-quantity
│ │ ├── item-quantity.component.css
│ │ ├── item-quantity.component.html
│ │ └── item-quantity.component.ts
│ ├── simple-page
│ │ ├── simple-page.component.css
│ │ ├── simple-page.component.html
│ │ └── simple-page.component.ts
│ └── title
│ ├── title.component.css
│ ├── title.component.html
│ └── title.component.ts
├── pipes
│ └── word-wrap.pipe.ts
├── services
│ ├── http-error-handler.service.ts
│ └── local-storage.service.ts
└── shared.module.ts

We shall also use the shared module to export some commonly used Angular Material components. This makes it easier to use them out of the box instead of importing each component across various modules. Here’s what shared.module.ts will contain.

@NgModule({ declarations: [SimplePageComponent, TitleComponent, WordWrapPipe, ItemQuantityComponent], imports: [CommonModule, MatIconModule, MatButtonModule, MatTooltipModule, MatMenuModule, RouterModule], exports: [ CommonModule, ItemQuantityComponent, MatButtonModule, MatIconModule, MatSnackBarModule, MatTooltipModule, SimplePageComponent, TitleComponent, WordWrapPipe ]
export class SharedModule { }


Item Quantity Component

This component sets the quantity of items when adding them to the cart. It will be used in the cart and products modules. A material selector would have been an easy choice for this purpose. However, the style of the material select didn’t match the material inputs used in all the other forms. A material menu looked very similar to the material inputs used. So I decided to create a select component with it instead.

ng g c shared/components/item-quantity

The component will have three input properties and one output property. quantity sets the initial quantity of items, maxValue indicates the maximum number of items that can be selected in one go, and disabled indicates whether the component should be disabled or not. The setQuantityEvent is triggered when a quantity is selected.

When the component is initialized, we’ll set the values that appear on the material menu. There also exists a method called setQuantity that will emit setQuantityEvent events.

This is the component file.

@Component({ selector: 'app-item-quantity', templateUrl: './item-quantity.component.html', styleUrls: ['./item-quantity.component.css']
export class ItemQuantityComponent implements OnInit { @Input() quantity: number = 0; @Input() maxValue?: number = 0; @Input() disabled?: boolean = false; @Output() setQuantityEvent = new EventEmitter<number>(); values: number[] = []; constructor() { } ngOnInit() { if (this.maxValue) { for (let i = 1; i <= this.maxValue; i++) { this.values.push(i); } } } setQuantity(value: number) { this.setQuantityEvent.emit(value); }

This is its template.

<button mat-stroked-button [matMenuTriggerFor]="menu" [disabled]="disabled"> {{quantity}} <mat-icon ngIf="!disabled">expand_more</mat-icon>
<mat-menu #menu="matMenu"> <button ngFor="let no of values" (click)="setQuantity(no)" mat-menu-item>{{no}}</button>

Here is its styling.

button { margin: 3px;

Title Component

This component doubles as a stepper title as well as a plain title on some simpler pages. Although Angular Material provides a stepper component, it wasn’t the best fit for a rather long checkout process, wasn’t as responsive on smaller displays, and required a lot more time to implement. A simpler title however could be repurposed as a stepper indicator and be useful across multiple pages.

ng g c shared/components/title

The component has four input properties: a title, a subtitle, a number (no), and centerText, to indicate whether to center the text of the component.

@Component({ selector: 'app-title', templateUrl: './title.component.html', styleUrls: ['./title.component.css']
export class TitleComponent { @Input() title: string = ''; @Input() subtitle: string = ''; @Input() no?: string; @Input() centerText?: boolean = false;

Below is its template. You can find its styling linked here.

<div id="header"> <h1 *ngIf="no" class="mat-display-1" id="no">{{no}}</h1> <div [ngClass]="{ 'centered-section': centerText}"> <h1 class="mat-display-2">{{title}}</h1> <p id="subheading">{{subtitle}}</p> </div>

Simple Page Component

There are multiple instances where a title, an icon, and a button were all that were needed for a page. These include a 404 page, an empty cart page, an error page, a payment page, and an order placement page. That’s the purpose the simple page component will serve. When the button on the page is clicked, it will either redirect to a route or perform some action in response to a buttonEvent.

To make it:

ng g c shared/components/simple-page

This is its component file.

@Component({ selector: 'app-simple-page', templateUrl: './simple-page.component.html', styleUrls: ['./simple-page.component.css']
export class SimplePageComponent { @Input() title: string = ''; @Input() subtitle?: string; @Input() number?: string; @Input() icon?: string; @Input() buttonText: string = ''; @Input() centerText?: boolean = false; @Input() buttonDisabled?: boolean = false; @Input() route?: string | undefined; @Output() buttonEvent = new EventEmitter(); constructor(private router: Router) { } buttonClicked() { if (this.route) { this.router.navigateByUrl(this.route); } else { this.buttonEvent.emit(); } }

And its template contains:

<div id="container"> <app-title no="{{number}}" title="{{title}}" subtitle="{{subtitle}}" [centerText]="centerText"></app-title> <div *ngIf="icon" id="icon-container"> <mat-icon color="primary" class="icon">{{icon}}</mat-icon> </div> <button mat-flat-button color="primary" (click)="buttonClicked()" [disabled]="buttonDisabled"> {{buttonText}} </button>

It’s styling can be found here.


Word Wrap Pipe

Some products’ names and other types of information displayed on the site are really long. In some instances, getting these long sentences to wrap in material components is challenging. So we’ll use this pipe to cut the sentences down to a specified length and add ellipses to the end of the result.

To create it run:

ng g pipe shared/pipes/word-wrap

It will contain:

import { Pipe, PipeTransform } from '@angular/core'; @Pipe({ name: 'wordWrap'
export class WordWrapPipe implements PipeTransform { transform(value: string, length: number): string { return `${value.substring(0, length)}...`; }


HTTP Error Handler Service

There are quite a number of http services in this project. Creating an error handler for each method is repetitive. So creating one single handler that can be used by all methods makes sense. The error handler can be used to format an error and also pass on the errors to other external logging platforms.

Generate it by running:

ng g s shared/services/http-error-handler

This service will contain only one method. The method will format the error message to be displayed depending on whether it’s a client or server error. However, there is room to improve it further.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class HttpErrorHandler { constructor() { } handleError(err: HttpErrorResponse): Observable { let displayMessage = ''; if (err.error instanceof ErrorEvent) { displayMessage = Client-side error: ${err.error.message}; } else { displayMessage = Server-side error: ${err.message}; } return throwError(displayMessage); }

Local Storage Service

We shall use local storage to keep track of the number of items in a cart. It’s also useful to store the Id of an order here. An order corresponds to a cart on Commerce Layer.

To generate the local storage service run:

ng g s shared/services/local-storage

The service will contain four methods to add, delete, and get items from local storage and another to clear it.

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core'; @Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class LocalStorageService { constructor() { } addItem(key: string, value: string) { localStorage.setItem(key, value); } deleteItem(key: string) { localStorage.removeItem(key); } getItem(key: string): string | null { return localStorage.getItem(key); } clear() { localStorage.clear(); }

Data Module

This module is responsible for data retrieval and management. It’s what we’ll use to get the data our app consumes. Below is its structure:

├── data.module.ts
├── models
└── services

To generate the module run:

ng g m data


The models define how the data we consume from the API is structured. We’ll have 16 interface declarations. To create them run:

for model in \
address cart country customer-address \
customer delivery-lead-time line-item order \
payment-method payment-source paypal-payment \
price shipment shipping-method sku stock-location; \
do ng g interface "data/models/${model}"; done

The following table links to each file and gives a description of what each interface is.

AddressRepresents a general address.
CartClient side version of an order tracking the number of products a customer intends to purchase.
CountryAlpha-2 country code.
Customer AddressAn address associated with a customer.
CustomerA registered user.
Delivery Lead TimeRepresents the amount of time it will take to delivery a shipment.
Line ItemAn itemized product added to the cart.
OrderA shopping cart or collection of line items.
Payment MethodA payment type made available to an order.
Payment SourceA payment associated with an order.
Paypal PaymentA payment made through Paypal
PricePrice associated with an SKU.
ShipmentCollection of items shipped together.
Shipping MethodMethod through which a package is shipped.
SKUA unique stock-keeping unit.
Stock LocationLocation that contains SKU inventory.


This folder contains the services that create, retrieve, and manipulate app data. We’ll create 11 services here.

for service in \
address cart country customer-address \
customer delivery-lead-time line-item \
order paypal-payment shipment sku; \
do ng g s "data/services/${service}"; done

Address Service

This service creates and retrieves addresses. It’s important when creating and assigning shipping and billing addresses to orders. It has two methods. One to create an address and another to retrieve one.

The route used here is /api/addresses. If you’re going to use the Commerce Layer API directly, make sure to structure the data as demonstrated in this example.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class AddressService { private url: string = ${environment.apiUrl}/api/addresses; constructor(private http: HttpClient, private eh: HttpErrorHandler) { } createAddress(address: Address): Observable<Address> { return this.http.post<Address>(this.url, address) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } getAddress(id: string): Observable<Address> { return this.http.get<Address>(${this.url}/${id}) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); }

Cart Service

The cart is responsible for maintaining the quantity of items added and the order Id. Making API calls to get the number of items in an order everytime a new line item is created can be expensive. Instead, we could just use local storage to maintain the count on the client. This eliminates the need to make unnecessary order fetches every time an item is added to the cart.

We also use this service to store the order Id. A cart corresponds to an order on Commerce Layer. Once the first item is added to the cart, an order is created. We need to preserve this order Id so we can fetch it during the checkout process.

Additionally, we need a way to communicate to the header that an item has been added to the cart. The header contains the cart button and displays the amount of items in it. We’ll use an observable of a BehaviorSubject with the current value of the cart. The header can subscribe to this and track changes in the cart value.

Lastly, once an order has been completed the cart value needs to be cleared. This ensures that there’s no confusion when creating subsequent newer orders. The values that were stored are cleared once the current order is marked as placed.

We’ll accomplish all this using the local storage service created earlier.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class CartService { private cart = new BehaviorSubject({ orderId: this.orderId, itemCount: this.itemCount }); cartValue$ = this.cart.asObservable(); constructor(private storage: LocalStorageService) { } get orderId(): string { const id = this.storage.getItem('order-id'); return id ? id : ''; } set orderId(id: string) { this.storage.addItem('order-id', id); this.cart.next({ orderId: id, itemCount: this.itemCount }); } get itemCount(): number { const itemCount = this.storage.getItem('item-count'); return itemCount ? parseInt(itemCount) : 0; } set itemCount(amount: number) { this.storage.addItem('item-count', amount.toString()); this.cart.next({ orderId: this.orderId, itemCount: amount }); } incrementItemCount(amount: number) { this.itemCount = this.itemCount + amount; } decrementItemCount(amount: number) { this.itemCount = this.itemCount - amount; } clearCart() { this.storage.deleteItem('item-count'); this.cart.next({ orderId: '', itemCount: 0 }); }

Country Service

When adding addresses on Commerce Layer, the country code has to be an alpha 2 code. This service reads a json file containing these codes for every country and returns it in its getCountries method.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class CountryService { constructor(private http: HttpClient) { } getCountries(): Observable<Country[]> { return this.http.get<Country[]>('./../../../assets/json/country-codes.json'); }

Customer Address Service

This service is used to associate addresses with customers. It also fetches a specific or all addresses related to a customer. It is used when the customer adds their shipping and billing addresses to their order. The createCustomer method creates a customer, getCustomerAddresses gets all of a customer’s addresses, and getCustomerAddress gets a specific one.

When creating a customer address, be sure to structure the post body according to this example.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class CustomerAddressService { private url: string = ${environment.apiUrl}/api/customer_addresses; constructor(private http: HttpClient, private eh: HttpErrorHandler) { } createCustomerAddress(addressId: string, customerId: string): Observable<CustomerAddress> { return this.http.post<CustomerAddress>(this.url, { addressId: addressId, customerId: customerId }) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } getCustomerAddresses(): Observable<CustomerAddress[]> { return this.http.get<CustomerAddress[]>(${this.url}) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } getCustomerAddress(id: string): Observable<CustomerAddress> { return this.http.get<CustomerAddress>(${this.url}/${id}) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); }

Customer Service

Customers are created and their information retrieved using this service. When a user signs up, they become a customer and are created using the createCustomerMethod. getCustomer returns the customer associated with a specific Id. getCurrentCustomer returns the customer currently logged in.

When creating a customer, structure the data like this. You can add their first and last names to the metadata, as shown in its attributes.

The route /api/customers/current is not available on Commerce Layer. So you’ll need to figure out how to get the currently logged in customer.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class CustomerService { private url: string = ${environment.apiUrl}/api/customers; constructor(private http: HttpClient, private eh: HttpErrorHandler) { } createCustomer(email: string, password: string, firstName: string, lastName: string): Observable<Customer> { return this.http.post<Customer>(this.url, { email: email, password: password, firstName: firstName, lastName: lastName }) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } getCurrentCustomer(): Observable<Customer> { return this.http.get<Customer>(${this.url}/current) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } getCustomer(id: string): Observable<Customer> { return this.http.get<Customer>(${this.url}/${id}) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); }

Delivery Lead Time Service

This service returns information about shipping timelines from various stock locations.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class DeliveryLeadTimeService { private url: string = ${environment.apiUrl}/api/delivery_lead_times; constructor(private http: HttpClient, private eh: HttpErrorHandler) { } getDeliveryLeadTimes(): Observable<DeliveryLeadTime[]> { return this.http.get<DeliveryLeadTime[]>(this.url) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); }

Line Item Service

Items added to the cart are managed by this service. With it, you can create an item the moment it is added to the cart. An item’s information can also be fetched. The item may also be updated when its quantity changes or deleted when removed from the cart.

When creating items or updating them, structure the request body as shown in this example.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class LineItemService { private url: string = ${environment.apiUrl}/api/line_items; constructor(private http: HttpClient, private eh: HttpErrorHandler) { } createLineItem(lineItem: LineItem): Observable<LineItem> { return this.http.post<LineItem>(this.url, lineItem) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } getLineItem(id: string): Observable<LineItem> { return this.http.get<LineItem>(${this.url}/${id}) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } updateLineItem(id: string, quantity: number): Observable<LineItem> { return this.http.patch<LineItem>(${this.url}/${id}, { quantity: quantity }) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } deleteLineItem(id: string): Observable<LineItem> { return this.http.delete<LineItem>(${this.url}/${id}) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); }

Order Service

Similar to the line item service, the order service allows you to create, update, delete, or get an order. Additionally, you may choose to get the shipments associated with an order separately using the getOrderShipments method. This service is used heavily throughout the checkout process.

There are different kinds of information about an order that are required throughout checkout. Since it may be expensive to fetch a whole order and its relations, we specify what we want to get from an order using GetOrderParams. The equivalent of this on the CL API is the include query parameter where you list the order relationships to be included. You can check what fields need to be included for the cart summary here and for the various checkout stages here.

In the same manner, when updating an order, we use UpdateOrderParams to specify update fields. This is because in the server that populates the token, some extra operations are performed depending on what field is being updated. However, if you’re making direct requests to the CL API, you do not need to specify this. You can do away with it since the CL API doesn’t require you to specify them. Although, the request body should resemble this example.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class OrderService { private url: string = ${environment.apiUrl}/api/orders; constructor( private http: HttpClient, private eh: HttpErrorHandler) { } createOrder(): Observable<Order> { return this.http.post<Order>(this.url, {}) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } getOrder(id: string, orderParam: GetOrderParams): Observable<Order> { let params = {}; if (orderParam != GetOrderParams.none) { params = { [orderParam]: 'true' }; } return this.http.get<Order>(${this.url}/${id}, { params: params }) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } updateOrder(order: Order, params: UpdateOrderParams[]): Observable<Order> { let updateParams = []; for (const param of params) { updateParams.push(param.toString()); } return this.http.patch<Order>( ${this.url}/${order.id}, order, { params: { 'field': updateParams } } ) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } getOrderShipments(id: string): Observable<Shipment[]> { return this.http.get<Shipment[]>(${this.url}/${id}/shipments) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); }

Paypal Payment Service

This service is responsible for creating and updating Paypal payments for orders. Additionally, we can get a Paypal payment given its id. The post body should have a structure similar to this example when creating a Paypal payment.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class PaypalPaymentService { private url: string = ${environment.apiUrl}/api/paypal_payments; constructor(private http: HttpClient, private eh: HttpErrorHandler) { } createPaypalPayment(payment: PaypalPayment): Observable<PaypalPayment> { return this.http.post<PaypalPayment>(this.url, payment) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } getPaypalPayment(id: string): Observable<PaypalPayment> { return this.http.get<PaypalPayment>(${this.url}/${id}) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } updatePaypalPayment(id: string, paypalPayerId: string): Observable<PaypalPayment> { return this.http.patch<PaypalPayment>( ${this.url}/${id}, { paypalPayerId: paypalPayerId } ) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); }

Shipment Service

This service gets a shipment or updates it given its id. The request body of a shipment update should look similar to this example.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class ShipmentService { private url: string = ${environment.apiUrl}/api/shipments; constructor(private http: HttpClient, private eh: HttpErrorHandler) { } getShipment(id: string): Observable<Shipment> { return this.http.get<Shipment>(${this.url}/${id}) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } updateShipment(id: string, shippingMethodId: string): Observable<Shipment> { return this.http.patch<Shipment>( ${this.url}/${id}, { shippingMethodId: shippingMethodId } ) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); }

SKU Service

The SKU service gets products from the store. If multiple products are being retrieved, they can be paginated and have a page size set. Page size and page number should be set as query params like in this example if you’re making direct requests to the API. A single product can also be retrieved given its id.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class SkuService { private url: string = ${environment.apiUrl}/api/skus; constructor(private http: HttpClient, private eh: HttpErrorHandler) { } getSku(id: string): Observable<Sku> { return this.http.get<Sku>(${this.url}/${id}) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } getSkus(page: number, pageSize: number): Observable<Sku[]> { return this.http.get<Sku[]>( this.url, { params: { 'page': page.toString(), 'pageSize': pageSize.toString() } }) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); }

Core Module

The core module contains everything central to and common across the application. These include components like the header and pages like the 404 page. Services responsible for authentication and session management also fall here, as well as app-wide interceptors and guards.

The core module tree will look like this.

├── components
│ ├── error
│ │ ├── error.component.css
│ │ ├── error.component.html
│ │ └── error.component.ts
│ ├── header
│ │ ├── header.component.css
│ │ ├── header.component.html
│ │ └── header.component.ts
│ └── not-found
│ ├── not-found.component.css
│ ├── not-found.component.html
│ └── not-found.component.ts
├── core.module.ts
├── guards
│ └── empty-cart.guard.ts
├── interceptors
│ └── options.interceptor.ts
└── services ├── authentication.service.ts ├── header.service.ts └── session.service.ts

To generate the module and its contents run:

ng g m core
ng g g core/guards/empty-cart
ng g s core/header/header
ng g interceptor core/interceptors/options
for comp in header error not-found; do ng g c "core/${comp}"; done
for serv in authentication session; do ng g s "core/authentication/${serv}"; done

The core module file should like this. Note that routes have been registered for the NotFoundComponent and ErrorComponent.

@NgModule({ declarations: [HeaderComponent, NotFoundComponent, ErrorComponent], imports: [ RouterModule.forChild([ { path: '404', component: NotFoundComponent }, { path: 'error', component: ErrorComponent }, { path: '**', redirectTo: '/404' } ]), MatBadgeModule, SharedModule ], exports: [HeaderComponent]
export class CoreModule { }


The services folder holds the authentication, session, and header services.

Authentication Service

The AuthenticationService allows you to acquire client and customer tokens. These tokens are used to access the rest of the API’s routes. Customer tokens are returned when a user exchanges an email and password for it and have a wider range of permissions. Client tokens are issued without needing credentials and have narrower permissions.

getClientSession gets a client token. login gets a customer token. Both methods also create a session. The body of a client token request should look like this and that of a customer token like this.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class AuthenticationService { private url: string = ${environment.apiUrl}/oauth/token; constructor(private http: HttpClient, private eh: HttpErrorHandler) { } getClientSession(): Observable<object> { return this.http.post<object>( this.url, { grantType: 'client_credentials' }) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } login(email: string, password: string): Observable<object> { return this.http.post<object>( this.url, { username: email, password: password, grantType: 'password' }) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); }

Session Service

The SessionService is responsible for session management. The service will contain an observable from a BehaviorSubject called loggedInStatus to communicate whether a user is logged in. setLoggedInStatus sets the value of this subject, true for logged in, and false for not logged in. isCustomerLoggedIn makes a request to the server to check if the user has an existing session. logout destroys the session on the server. The last two methods access routes that are unique to the server that populates the request with a token. They are not available from Commerce Layer. You’ll have to figure out how to implement them.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class SessionService { private url: string = ${environment.apiUrl}/session; private isLoggedIn = new BehaviorSubject(false); loggedInStatus = this.isLoggedIn.asObservable(); constructor(private http: HttpClient, private eh: HttpErrorHandler) { } setLoggedInStatus(status: boolean) { this.isLoggedIn.next(status); } isCustomerLoggedIn(): Observable<{ message: string }> { return this.http.get<{ message: string }>(${this.url}/customer/status) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); } logout(): Observable<{ message: string }> { return this.http.get<{ message: string }>(${this.url}/destroy) .pipe(catchError(this.eh.handleError)); }

Header Service

The HeaderService is used to communicate whether the cart, login, and logout buttons should be shown in the header. These buttons are hidden on the login and signup pages but present on all other pages to prevent confusion. We’ll use an observable from a BehaviourSubject called showHeaderButtons that shares this. We’ll also have a setHeaderButtonsVisibility method to set this value.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class HeaderService { private headerButtonsVisibility = new BehaviorSubject(true); showHeaderButtons = this.headerButtonsVisibility.asObservable(); constructor() { } setHeaderButtonsVisibility(visible: boolean) { this.headerButtonsVisibility.next(visible); }


Error Component

This component is used as an error page. It is useful in instances when server requests fail and absolutely no data is displayed on a page. Instead of showing a blank page, we let the user know that a problem occurred. Below is it’s template.

<app-simple-page title="An error occurred" subtitle="There was a problem fetching your page" buttonText="GO TO HOME" icon="report" [centerText]="true" route="/">

This is what the component will look like.

Not Found Component

This is a 404 page that the user gets redirected to when they request a route not available on the router. Only its template is modified.

<app-simple-page title="404: Page not found" buttonText="GO TO HOME" icon="search" subtitle="The requested page could not be found" [centerText]="true" route="/"></app-simple-page>

Header Component

The HeaderComponent is basically the header displayed at the top of a page. It will contain the app title, the cart, login, and logout buttons.

When this component is initialized, a request is made to check whether the user has a current session. This happens when subscribing to this.session.isCustomerLoggedIn(). We subscribe to this.session.loggedInStatus to check if the user logs out throughout the life of the app. The this.header.showHeaderButtons subscription decides whether to show all the buttons on the header or hide them. this.cart.cartValue$ gets the count of items in the cart.

There exists a logout method that destroys a user’s session and assigns them a client token. A client token is assigned because the session maintaining their customer token is destroyed and a token is still required for each API request. A material snackbar communicates to the user whether their session was successfully destroyed or not.

We use the @UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true }) decorator to indicate that all subscriptions should be automatically unsubscribed from when the component is destroyed.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-header', templateUrl: './header.component.html', styleUrls: ['./header.component.css']
export class HeaderComponent implements OnInit { cartAmount: number = 0; isLoggedIn: boolean = false; showButtons: boolean = true; constructor( private session: SessionService, private snackBar: MatSnackBar, private cart: CartService, private header: HeaderService, private auth: AuthenticationService ) { } ngOnInit() { this.session.isCustomerLoggedIn() .subscribe( () => { this.isLoggedIn = true; this.session.setLoggedInStatus(true); } ); this.session.loggedInStatus.subscribe(status => this.isLoggedIn = status); this.header.showHeaderButtons.subscribe(visible => this.showButtons = visible); this.cart.cartValue$.subscribe(cart => this.cartAmount = cart.itemCount); } logout() { concat( this.session.logout(), this.auth.getClientSession() ).subscribe( () => { this.snackBar.open('You have been logged out.', 'Close', { duration: 4000 }); this.session.setLoggedInStatus(false); }, err => this.snackBar.open('There was a problem logging you out.', 'Close', { duration: 4000 }) ); }

Below is the header template and linked here is its styling.

<div id="header-container"> <div id="left-half" routerLink="/"> <h1><span id="lime-text">Lime</span><span id="store-text">Store</span></h1> </div> <div id="right-half"> <div id="button-container" ngIf="showButtons"> <button mat-icon-button color="primary" aria-label="shopping cart"> <mat-icon [matBadge]="cartAmount" matBadgeColor="accent" aria-label="shopping cart" routerLink="/cart">shopping_cart</mat-icon> </button> <button mat-icon-button color="primary" aria-label="login" ngIf="!isLoggedIn"> <mat-icon aria-label="login" matTooltip="login" routerLink="/login">login</mat-icon> </button> <button mat-icon-button color="primary" aria-label="logout" *ngIf="isLoggedIn" (click)="logout()"> <mat-icon aria-label="logout" matTooltip="logout">logout</mat-icon> </button> </div> </div>


Empty Cart Guard

This guard prevents users from accessing routes relating to checkout and billing if their cart is empty. This is because to proceed with checkout, there needs to be a valid order. An order corresponds to a cart with items in it. If there are items in the cart, the user can proceed to a guarded page. However, if the cart is empty, the user is redirected to an empty-cart page.

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root'
export class EmptyCartGuard implements CanActivate { constructor(private cart: CartService, private router: Router) { } canActivate( route: ActivatedRouteSnapshot, state: RouterStateSnapshot): Observable<boolean | UrlTree> | Promise<boolean | UrlTree> | boolean | UrlTree { if (this.cart.orderId) { if (this.cart.itemCount > 0) { return true; } } return this.router.parseUrl('/empty'); }


Options Interceptor

This interceptor intercepts all outgoing HTTP requests and adds two options to the request. These are a Content-Type header and a withCredentials property. withCredentials specifies whether a request should be sent with outgoing credentials like the http-only cookies that we use. We use Content-Type to indicate that we are sending json resources to the server.

export class OptionsInterceptor implements HttpInterceptor { constructor() { } intercept(request: HttpRequest<any>, next: HttpHandler): Observable<HttpEvent<any>> { request = request.clone({ headers: request.headers.set('Content-Type', 'application/json'), withCredentials: true }); return next.handle(request); }

Feature Modules

This section contains the main features of the app. As mentioned earlier, the features are grouped in four modules: auth, product, cart, and checkout modules.

Products Module

The products module contains pages that display products on sale. These include the product page and the product list page. It’s structured as shown below.

├── pages
│ ├── product
│ │ ├── product.component.css
│ │ ├── product.component.html
│ │ └── product.component.ts
│ └── product-list
│ ├── product-list.component.css
│ ├── product-list.component.html
│ └── product-list.component.ts
└── products.module.ts

To generate it and its components:

ng g m features/products
ng g c features/products/pages/product
ng g c features/products/pages/product-list

This is the module file:

@NgModule({ declarations: [ProductListComponent, ProductComponent], imports: [ RouterModule.forChild([ { path: 'product/:id', component: ProductComponent }, { path: '', component: ProductListComponent } ]), LayoutModule, MatCardModule, MatGridListModule, MatPaginatorModule, SharedModule ]
export class ProductsModule { }

Product List Component

This component displays a paginated list of available products for sale. It is the first page that is loaded when the app starts.

The products are displayed in a grid. Material grid list is the best component for this. To make the grid responsive, the number of grid columns will change depending on the screen size. The BreakpointObserver service allows us to determine the size of the screen and assign the columns during initialization.

To get the products, we call the getProducts method of the SkuService. It returns the products if successful and assigns them to the grid. If not, we route the user to the error page.

Since the products displayed are paginated, we will have a getNextPage method to get the additional products.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-product-list', templateUrl: './product-list.component.html', styleUrls: ['./product-list.component.css']
export class ProductListComponent implements OnInit { cols = 4; length = 0; pageIndex = 0; pageSize = 20; pageSizeOptions: number[] = [5, 10, 20]; pageEvent!: PageEvent | void; products: Sku[] = []; constructor( private breakpointObserver: BreakpointObserver, private skus: SkuService, private router: Router, private header: HeaderService) { } ngOnInit() { this.getProducts(1, 20); this.header.setHeaderButtonsVisibility(true); this.breakpointObserver.observe([ Breakpoints.Handset, Breakpoints.Tablet, Breakpoints.Web ]).subscribe(result => { if (result.matches) { if (result.breakpoints['(max-width: 599.98px) and (orientation: portrait)'] || result.breakpoints['(max-width: 599.98px) and (orientation: landscape)']) { this.cols = 1; } else if (result.breakpoints['(min-width: 1280px) and (orientation: portrait)'] || result.breakpoints['(min-width: 1280px) and (orientation: landscape)']) { this.cols = 4; } else { this.cols = 3; } } }); } private getProducts(page: number, pageSize: number) { this.skus.getSkus(page, pageSize) .subscribe( skus => { this.products = skus; this.length = skus[0].__collectionMeta.recordCount; }, err => this.router.navigateByUrl('/error') ); } getNextPage(event: PageEvent) { this.getProducts(event.pageIndex + 1, event.pageSize); } trackSkus(index: number, item: Sku) { return ${item.id}-${index}; }

The template is shown below and its styling can be found here.

<mat-grid-list cols="{{cols}}" rowHeight="400px" gutterSize="20px" class="grid-layout"> <mat-grid-tile *ngFor="let product of products; trackBy: trackSkus"> <mat-card> <img id="card-image" mat-card-image src="{{product.imageUrl}}" alt="product photo"> <mat-card-content> <mat-card-title matTooltip="{{product.name}}">{{product.name |wordWrap:35}}</mat-card-title> <mat-card-subtitle>{{product.prices[0].compareAtAmountFloat | currency:'EUR'}}</mat-card-subtitle> </mat-card-content> <mat-card-actions> <button mat-flat-button color="primary" [routerLink]="['/product', product.id]"> View </button> </mat-card-actions> </mat-card> </mat-grid-tile>
<mat-paginator [length]="length" [pageIndex]="pageIndex" [pageSize]="pageSize" [pageSizeOptions]="pageSizeOptions" (page)="pageEvent = getNextPage($event)">

The page will look like this.

Product Component

Once a product is selected from the product list page, this component displays its details. These include the product’s full name, price, and description. There’s also a button to add the item to the product cart.

On initialization, we get the id of the product from the route parameters. Using the id, we fetch the product from the SkuService.

When the user adds an item to the cart, the addItemToCart method is called. In it, we check if an order has already been created for the cart. If not, a new one is made using the OrderService. Afterwhich, a line item is created in the order that corresponds to the product. If an order already exists for the cart, just the line item is created. Depending on the status of the requests, a snackbar message is displayed to the user.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-product', templateUrl: './product.component.html', styleUrls: ['./product.component.css']
export class ProductComponent implements OnInit { id: string = ''; product!: Sku; quantity: number = 0; constructor( private route: ActivatedRoute, private skus: SkuService, private location: Location, private router: Router, private header: HeaderService, private orders: OrderService, private lineItems: LineItemService, private cart: CartService, private snackBar: MatSnackBar ) { } ngOnInit() { this.route.paramMap .pipe( mergeMap(params => { const id = params.get('id') this.id = id ? id : ''; return this.skus.getSku(this.id); }), tap((sku) => { this.product = sku; }) ).subscribe({ error: (err) => this.router.navigateByUrl('/error') }); this.header.setHeaderButtonsVisibility(true); } addItemToCart() { if (this.quantity > 0) { if (this.cart.orderId == '') { this.orders.createOrder() .pipe( mergeMap((order: Order) => { this.cart.orderId = order.id || ''; return this.lineItems.createLineItem({ orderId: order.id, name: this.product.name, imageUrl: this.product.imageUrl, quantity: this.quantity, skuCode: this.product.code }); }) ) .subscribe( () => { this.cart.incrementItemCount(this.quantity); this.showSuccessSnackBar(); }, err => this.showErrorSnackBar() ); } else { this.lineItems.createLineItem({ orderId: this.cart.orderId, name: this.product.name, imageUrl: this.product.imageUrl, quantity: this.quantity, skuCode: this.product.code }).subscribe( () => { this.cart.incrementItemCount(this.quantity); this.showSuccessSnackBar(); }, err => this.showErrorSnackBar() ); } } else { this.snackBar.open('Select a quantity greater than 0.', 'Close', { duration: 8000 }); } } setQuantity(no: number) { this.quantity = no; } goBack() { this.location.back(); } private showSuccessSnackBar() { this.snackBar.open('Item successfully added to cart.', 'Close', { duration: 8000 }); } private showErrorSnackBar() { this.snackBar.open('Failed to add your item to the cart.', 'Close', { duration: 8000 }); }

The ProductComponent template is as follows and its styling is linked here.

<div id="container"> <mat-card *ngIf="product" class="product-card"> <img mat-card-image src="{{product.imageUrl}}" alt="Photo of a product"> <mat-card-content> <mat-card-title>{{product.name}}</mat-card-title> <mat-card-subtitle>{{product.prices[0].compareAtAmountFloat | currency:'EUR'}}</mat-card-subtitle> <p> {{product.description}} </p> </mat-card-content> <mat-card-actions> <app-item-quantity [quantity]="quantity" [maxValue]="10" (setQuantityEvent)="setQuantity($event)"></app-item-quantity> <button mat-raised-button color="accent" (click)="addItemToCart()"> <mat-icon>add_shopping_cart</mat-icon> Add to cart </button> <button mat-raised-button color="primary" (click)="goBack()"> <mat-icon>storefront</mat-icon> Continue shopping </button> </mat-card-actions> </mat-card>

The page will look like this.

Auth Module

The Auth module contains pages responsible for authentication. These include the login and signup pages. It‘s structured as follows.

├── auth.module.ts
└── pages ├── login │ ├── login.component.css │ ├── login.component.html │ └── login.component.ts └── signup ├── signup.component.css ├── signup.component.html └── signup.component.ts

To generate it and its components:

ng g m features/auth
ng g c features/auth/pages/signup
ng g c features/auth/pages/login

This is its module file.

@NgModule({ declarations: [LoginComponent, SignupComponent], imports: [ RouterModule.forChild([ { path: 'login', component: LoginComponent }, { path: 'signup', component: SignupComponent } ]), MatFormFieldModule, MatInputModule, ReactiveFormsModule, SharedModule ]
export class AuthModule { }

Signup Component

A user signs up for an account using this component. A first name, last name, email, and password are required for the process. The user also needs to confirm their password. The input fields will be created with the FormBuilder service. Validation is added to require that all the inputs have values. Additional validation is added to the password field to ensure a minimum length of eight characters. A custom matchPasswords validator ensures that the confirmed password matches the initial password.

When the component is initialized, the cart, login, and logout buttons in the header are hidden.This is communicated to the header using the HeaderService.

After all the fields are marked as valid, the user can then sign up. In the signup method, the createCustomer method of the CustomerService receives this input. If the signup is successful, the user is informed that their account was successfully created using a snackbar. They are then rerouted to the home page.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-signup', templateUrl: './signup.component.html', styleUrls: ['./signup.component.css']
export class SignupComponent implements OnInit { signupForm = this.fb.group({ firstName: ['', Validators.required], lastName: ['', Validators.required], email: ['', [Validators.required, Validators.email]], password: ['', [Validators.required, Validators.minLength(8)]], confirmedPassword: ['', [Validators.required]] }, { validators: this.matchPasswords }); @ViewChild(FormGroupDirective) sufDirective: FormGroupDirective | undefined; constructor( private customer: CustomerService, private fb: FormBuilder, private snackBar: MatSnackBar, private router: Router, private header: HeaderService ) { } ngOnInit() { this.header.setHeaderButtonsVisibility(false); } matchPasswords(signupGroup: AbstractControl): ValidationErrors | null { const password = signupGroup.get('password')?.value; const confirmedPassword = signupGroup.get('confirmedPassword')?.value; return password == confirmedPassword ? null : { differentPasswords: true }; } get password() { return this.signupForm.get('password'); } get confirmedPassword() { return this.signupForm.get('confirmedPassword'); } signup() { const customer = this.signupForm.value; this.customer.createCustomer( customer.email, customer.password, customer.firstName, customer.lastName ).subscribe( () => { this.signupForm.reset(); this.sufDirective?.resetForm(); this.snackBar.open('Account successfully created. You will be redirected in 5 seconds.', 'Close', { duration: 5000 }); setTimeout(() => this.router.navigateByUrl('/'), 6000); }, err => this.snackBar.open('There was a problem creating your account.', 'Close', { duration: 5000 }) ); }

Below is the template for the SignupComponent.

<form id="container" [formGroup]="signupForm" (ngSubmit)="signup()"> <h1 class="mat-display-3">Create Account</h1> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>First Name</mat-label> <input matInput formControlName="firstName"> <mat-icon matPrefix>portrait</mat-icon> </mat-form-field> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>Last Name</mat-label> <input matInput formControlName="lastName"> <mat-icon matPrefix>portrait</mat-icon> </mat-form-field> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>Email</mat-label> <input matInput formControlName="email" type="email"> <mat-icon matPrefix>alternate_email</mat-icon> </mat-form-field> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>Password</mat-label> <input matInput formControlName="password" type="password"> <mat-icon matPrefix>vpn_key</mat-icon> </mat-form-field> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>Confirm Password</mat-label> <input matInput formControlName="confirmedPassword" type="password"> <mat-icon matPrefix>vpn_key</mat-icon> </mat-form-field> <div ngIf="confirmedPassword?.invalid && (confirmedPassword?.dirty || confirmedPassword?.touched)"> <mat-error ngIf="signupForm.hasError('differentPasswords')"> Your passwords do not match. </mat-error> </div> <div ngIf="password?.invalid && (password?.dirty || password?.touched)"> <mat-error ngIf="password?.hasError('minlength')"> Your password should be at least 8 characters. </mat-error> </div> <button mat-flat-button color="primary" [disabled]="!signupForm.valid">Sign Up</button>

The component will turn out as follows.

Login Component

A registered user logs into their account with this component. An email and password need to be entered. Their corresponding input fields would have validation that makes them required.

Similar to the SignupComponent, the cart, login, and logout buttons in the header are hidden. Their visibility is set using the HeaderService during component initialization.

To login, the credentials are passed to the AuthenticationService. If successful, the login status of the user is set using the SessionService. The user is then routed back to the page they were on. If unsuccessful, a snackbar is displayed with an error and the password field is reset.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-login', templateUrl: './login.component.html', styleUrls: ['./login.component.css']
export class LoginComponent implements OnInit { loginForm = this.fb.group({ email: ['', Validators.required], password: ['', Validators.required] }); constructor( private authService: AuthenticationService, private session: SessionService, private snackBar: MatSnackBar, private fb: FormBuilder, private header: HeaderService, private location: Location ) { } ngOnInit() { this.header.setHeaderButtonsVisibility(false); } login() { const credentials = this.loginForm.value; this.authService.login( credentials.email, credentials.password ).subscribe( () => { this.session.setLoggedInStatus(true); this.location.back(); }, err => { this.snackBar.open( 'Login failed. Check your login credentials.', 'Close', { duration: 6000 }); this.loginForm.patchValue({ password: '' }); } ); }

Below is the LoginComponent template.

<form id="container" [formGroup]="loginForm" (ngSubmit)="login()"> <h1 class="mat-display-3">Login</h1> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>Email</mat-label> <input matInput type="email" formControlName="email" required> <mat-icon matPrefix>alternate_email</mat-icon> </mat-form-field> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>Password</mat-label> <input matInput type="password" formControlName="password" required> <mat-icon matPrefix>vpn_key</mat-icon> </mat-form-field> <button mat-flat-button color="primary" [disabled]="!loginForm.valid">Login</button> <p id="newAccount" class="mat-h3">Not registered yet? <a id="newAccountLink" routerLink="/signup">Create an account.</a></p>

Here is a screenshot of the page.

Cart Module

The cart module contains all pages related to the cart. These include the order summary page, a coupon and gift card code page, and an empty cart page. It’s structured as follows.

├── cart.module.ts
└── pages ├── codes │ ├── codes.component.css │ ├── codes.component.html │ └── codes.component.ts ├── empty │ ├── empty.component.css │ ├── empty.component.html │ └── empty.component.ts └── summary ├── summary.component.css ├── summary.component.html └── summary.component.ts

To generate it, run:

ng g m features/cart
ng g c features/cart/codes
ng g c features/cart/empty
ng g c features/cart/summary

This is the module file.

@NgModule({ declarations: [SummaryComponent, CodesComponent, EmptyComponent], imports: [ RouterModule.forChild([ { path: '', canActivate: [EmptyCartGuard], children: [ { path: 'cart', component: SummaryComponent }, { path: 'codes', component: CodesComponent } ] }, { path: 'empty', component: EmptyComponent } ]), MatDividerModule, MatFormFieldModule, MatInputModule, MatMenuModule, ReactiveFormsModule, SharedModule ]
export class CartModule { }

Codes Component

As mentioned earlier, this component is used to add any coupon or gift card codes to an order. This allows the user to apply discounts to the total of their order before proceeding to checkout.

There will be two input fields. One for coupons and another for gift card codes.

The codes are added by updating the order. The updateOrder method of the OrderService updates the order with the codes. Afterwhich, both fields are reset and the user is informed of the success of the operation with a snackbar. A snackbar is also shown when an error occurs. Both the addCoupon and addGiftCard methods call the updateOrder method.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-codes', templateUrl: './codes.component.html', styleUrls: ['./codes.component.css']
export class CodesComponent { couponCode = new FormControl(''); giftCardCode = new FormControl(''); @ViewChild(FormControlDirective) codesDirective: FormControlDirective | undefined; constructor( private cart: CartService, private order: OrderService, private snackBar: MatSnackBar ) { } private updateOrder(order: Order, params: UpdateOrderParams[], codeType: string) { this.order.updateOrder(order, params) .subscribe( () => { this.snackBar.open(Successfully added ${codeType} code., 'Close', { duration: 8000 }); this.couponCode.reset(); this.giftCardCode.reset(); this.codesDirective?.reset(); }, err => this.snackBar.open(There was a problem adding your ${codeType} code., 'Close', { duration: 8000 }) ); } addCoupon() { this.updateOrder({ id: this.cart.orderId, couponCode: this.couponCode.value }, [UpdateOrderParams.couponCode], 'coupon'); } addGiftCard() { this.updateOrder({ id: this.cart.orderId, giftCardCode: this.giftCardCode.value }, [UpdateOrderParams.giftCardCode], 'gift card'); } }

The template is shown below and its styling can be found at this link.

<div id="container"> <app-title title="Redeem a code" subtitle="Enter a coupon code or gift card" [centerText]="true"></app-title> <div class="input-row"> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>Coupon Code</mat-label> <input matInput [formControl]="couponCode" required> <mat-icon matPrefix>card_giftcard</mat-icon> </mat-form-field> <button class="redeem" mat-flat-button color="accent" [disabled]="couponCode.invalid" (click)="addCoupon()">Redeem</button> </div> <div class="input-row"> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>Gift Card Code</mat-label> <input matInput [formControl]="giftCardCode" required> <mat-icon matPrefix>redeem</mat-icon> </mat-form-field> <button class="redeem" mat-flat-button color="accent" [disabled]="giftCardCode.invalid" (click)="addGiftCard()">Redeem</button> </div> <button color="primary" mat-flat-button routerLink="/cart"> <mat-icon>shopping_cart</mat-icon> CONTINUE TO CART </button>

Here is a screenshot of the page.

Empty Component

It should not be possible to check out with an empty cart. There needs to be a guard that prevents users from accessing checkout module pages with empty carts. This has already been covered as part of the CoreModule. The guard redirects requests to checkout pages with an empty cart to the EmptyCartComponent.

It’s a very simple component that has some text indicating to the user that their cart is empty. It also has a button that the user can click to go to the homepage to add things to their cart. So we’ll use the SimplePageComponent to display it. Here is the template.

<app-simple-page title="Your cart is empty" subtitle="There is currently nothing in your cart. Head to the home page to add items." buttonText="GO TO HOME PAGE" icon="shopping_basket" [centerText]="true" route="/">

Here is a screenshot of the page.

Summary Component

This component summarizes the cart/order. It lists all the items in the cart, their names, quantities, and pictures. It additionally breaks down the cost of the order including taxes, shipping, and discounts. The user should be able to view this and decide whether they are satisfied with the items and cost before proceeding to checkout.

On initialization, the order and its line items are fetched using the OrderService. A user should be able to modify the line items or even remove them from the order. Items are removed when the deleteLineItem method is called. In it the deleteLineItem method of the LineItemService receives the id of the line item to be deleted. If a deletion is successful, we update the item count in the cart using the CartService.

The user is then routed to the customer page where they begin the process of checking out. The checkout method does the routing.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-summary', templateUrl: './summary.component.html', styleUrls: ['./summary.component.css']
export class SummaryComponent implements OnInit { order: Order = {}; summary: { name: string, amount: string | undefined, id: string }[] = []; constructor( private orders: OrderService, private lineItems: LineItemService, private cart: CartService, private snackBar: MatSnackBar, private router: Router ) { } ngOnInit() { this.orders.getOrder(this.cart.orderId, GetOrderParams.cart) .subscribe( order => this.processOrder(order), err => this.showOrderError('retrieving your cart') ); } private processOrder(order: Order) { this.order = order; this.summary = [ { name: 'Subtotal', amount: order.formattedSubtotalAmount, id: 'subtotal' }, { name: 'Discount', amount: order.formattedDiscountAmount, id: 'discount' }, { name: 'Taxes (included)', amount: order.formattedTotalTaxAmount, id: 'taxes' }, { name: 'Shipping', amount: order.formattedShippingAmount, id: 'shipping' }, { name: 'Gift Card', amount: order.formattedGiftCardAmount, id: 'gift-card' } ]; } private showOrderError(msg: string) { this.snackBar.open(There was a problem ${msg}., 'Close', { duration: 8000 }); } checkout() { this.router.navigateByUrl('/customer'); } deleteLineItem(id: string) { this.lineItems.deleteLineItem(id) .pipe( mergeMap(() => this.orders.getOrder(this.cart.orderId, GetOrderParams.cart)) ).subscribe( order => { this.processOrder(order); this.cart.itemCount = order.skusCount || this.cart.itemCount; this.snackBar.open(Item successfully removed from cart., 'Close', { duration: 8000 }) }, err => this.showOrderError('deleting your order') ); }

Below is the template and its styling is linked here.

<div class="container" ngIf="order"> <h3 id="order-id">Order #{{order.number}} ({{order.skusCount}} items)</h3> <div class="line-item" ngFor="let item of order.lineItems"> <div id="product-details"> <img ngIf="item.imageUrl" class="image-xs" src="{{item.imageUrl}}" alt="product photo"> <div ngIf="!item.imageUrl" class="image-xs no-image"></div> <div id="line-details"> <div>{{item.name}}</div> <div> {{item.formattedUnitAmount }} </div> </div> </div> <div id="product-config"> <app-item-quantity [quantity]="item.quantity || 0" [disabled]="true"></app-item-quantity> <div class="itemTotal"> {{item.formattedTotalAmount }} </div> <button mat-icon-button color="warn" (click)="deleteLineItem(item.id || '')"> <mat-icon>clear</mat-icon> </button> </div> </div> <mat-divider></mat-divider> <div class="costSummary"> <div class="costItem" *ngFor="let item of summary" [id]="item.id"> <h3 class="costLabel">{{item.name}}</h3> <p> {{item.amount }} </p> </div> </div> <mat-divider></mat-divider> <div class="costSummary"> <div class="costItem" id="total"> <h2 id="totalLabel">Total</h2> <h2> {{order.formattedTotalAmountWithTaxes}} </h2> </div> </div> <div id="checkout-button"> <button color="accent" mat-flat-button routerLink="/codes"> <mat-icon>redeem</mat-icon> ADD GIFT CARD/COUPON </button> <button color="primary" mat-flat-button (click)="checkout()"> <mat-icon>point_of_sale</mat-icon> CHECKOUT </button> </div>

Here is a screenshot of the page.

Checkout Module

This module is responsible for the checkout process. Checkout involves providing a billing and shipping address, a customer email, and selecting a shipping and payment method. The last step of this process is placement and confirmation of the order. The structure of the module is as follows.

├── components
│ ├── address
│ ├── address-list
│ └── country-select
└── pages ├── billing-address ├── cancel-payment ├── customer ├── payment ├── place-order ├── shipping-address └── shipping-methods

This module is the biggest by far and contains 3 components and 7 pages. To generate it and its components run:

ng g m features/checkout
for comp in \
address address-list country-select; do \
ng g c "features/checkout/components/${comp}" \
; done
for page in \
billing-address cancel-payment customer \
payment place-order shipping-address \
shipping-methods; do \
ng g c "features/checkout/pages/${page}"; done

This is the module file.

@NgModule({ declarations: [ CustomerComponent, AddressComponent, BillingAddressComponent, ShippingAddressComponent, ShippingMethodsComponent, PaymentComponent, PlaceOrderComponent, AddressListComponent, CountrySelectComponent, CancelPaymentComponent ], imports: [ RouterModule.forChild([ { path: '', canActivate: [EmptyCartGuard], children: [ { path: 'billing-address', component: BillingAddressComponent }, { path: 'cancel-payment', component: CancelPaymentComponent }, { path: 'customer', component: CustomerComponent }, { path: 'payment', component: PaymentComponent }, { path: 'place-order', component: PlaceOrderComponent }, { path: 'shipping-address', component: ShippingAddressComponent }, { path: 'shipping-methods', component: ShippingMethodsComponent } ] } ]), MatCardModule, MatCheckboxModule, MatDividerModule, MatInputModule, MatMenuModule, MatRadioModule, ReactiveFormsModule, SharedModule ]
export class CheckoutModule { }


Country Select Component

This component lets a user select a country as part of an address. The material select component has a pretty different appearance when compared to the input fields in the address form. So for the sake of uniformity, a material menu component is used instead.

When the component is initialized, the country code data is fetched using the CountryService. The countries property holds the values returned by the service. These values will be added to the menu in the template.

The component has one output property, setCountryEvent. When a country is selected, this event emits the alpha-2 code of the country.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-country-select', templateUrl: './country-select.component.html', styleUrls: ['./country-select.component.css']
export class CountrySelectComponent implements OnInit { country: string = 'Country'; countries: Country[] = []; @Output() setCountryEvent = new EventEmitter<string>(); constructor(private countries: CountryService) { } ngOnInit() { this.countries.getCountries() .subscribe( countries => { this.countries = countries; } ); } setCountry(value: Country) { this.country = value.name || ''; this.setCountryEvent.emit(value.code); }}

Below is its template and linked here is its styling.

<button id="country-select" mat-stroked-button [matMenuTriggerFor]="countryMenu"> {{country}} <mat-icon>expand_more</mat-icon>
<mat-menu #countryMenu="matMenu"> <button *ngFor="let cnt of countries" (click)="setCountry(cnt)" mat-menu-item>{{cnt.name}}</button>

Address Component

This is a form for capturing addresses. It is used by both the shipping and billing address pages. A valid Commerce Layer address should contain a first and last name, an address line, a city, zip code, state code, country code, and phone number.

The FormBuilder service will create the form group. Since this component is used by multiple pages, it has a number of input and output properties. The input properties include the button text, title displayed, and text for a checkbox. The output properties will be event emitters for when the button is clicked to create the address and another for when the checkbox value changes.

When the button is clicked, the addAddress method is called and the createAddress event emits the complete address. Similarly, when the checkbox is checked, the isCheckboxChecked event emits the checkbox value.

@Component({ selector: 'app-address', templateUrl: './address.component.html', styleUrls: ['./address.component.css']
export class AddressComponent { @Input() buttonText: string = ''; @Input() showTitle?: boolean = false; @Output() createAddress = new EventEmitter<Address>(); @Input() checkboxText: string = ''; @Output() isCheckboxChecked = new EventEmitter<boolean>(); countryCode: string = ''; addressForm = this.fb.group({ firstName: [''], lastName: [''], line1: [''], city: [''], zipCode: [''], stateCode: [''], phone: [''] }); @ViewChild(FormGroupDirective) afDirective: FormGroupDirective | undefined; constructor(private fb: FormBuilder) { } setCountryCode(code: string) { this.countryCode = code; } addAddress() { this.createAddress.emit({ firstName: this.addressForm.get('firstName')?.value, lastName: this.addressForm.get('lastName')?.value, line1: this.addressForm.get('line1')?.value, city: this.addressForm.get('city')?.value, zipCode: this.addressForm.get('zipCode')?.value, stateCode: this.addressForm.get('stateCode')?.value || 'N/A', countryCode: this.countryCode, phone: this.addressForm.get('phone')?.value }); } setCheckboxValue(change: MatCheckboxChange) { if (this.isCheckboxChecked) { this.isCheckboxChecked.emit(change.checked); } }

This is its template and its styling is linked here.

<form id="container" [formGroup]="addressForm"> <p class="mat-headline" *ngIf="showTitle">Or add a new address</p> <div class="row"> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>First Name</mat-label> <input matInput formControlName="firstName"> </mat-form-field> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>Last Name</mat-label> <input matInput formControlName="lastName"> </mat-form-field> </div> <div class="row"> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>Address</mat-label> <input matInput formControlName="line1"> </mat-form-field> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>City</mat-label> <input matInput formControlName="city"> </mat-form-field> </div> <div class="row"> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>State Code</mat-label> <input matInput formControlName="stateCode"> </mat-form-field> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>Zip Code</mat-label> <input matInput formControlName="zipCode"> </mat-form-field> </div> <div class="row"> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>Phone</mat-label> <input matInput formControlName="phone"> </mat-form-field> <app-country-select (setCountryEvent)="setCountryCode($event)"></app-country-select> </div> <mat-checkbox color="accent" (change)="setCheckboxValue($event)"> {{checkboxText}} </mat-checkbox> <button id="submit-button" mat-flat-button color="primary" (click)="addAddress()"> {{buttonText}} </button>

Address List Component

When a customer logs in, they can access their existing addresses. Instead of having them re-enter an address, they can pick from an address list. This is the purpose of this component. On initialization, all the customer’s addresses are fetched using the CustomerAddressService if they are logged in. We will check their login status using the SessionService.

This component has a setAddressEvent output property. When an address is selected, setAddressEvent emits its id to the parent component.

@Component({ selector: 'app-address-list', templateUrl: './address-list.component.html', styleUrls: ['./address-list.component.css']
export class AddressListComponent implements OnInit { addresses: CustomerAddress[] = []; @Output() setAddressEvent = new EventEmitter<string>(); constructor( private session: SessionService, private customerAddresses: CustomerAddressService, private snackBar: MatSnackBar ) { } ngOnInit() { this.session.loggedInStatus .pipe( mergeMap( status => iif(() => status, this.customerAddresses.getCustomerAddresses()) )) .subscribe( addresses => { if (addresses.length) { this.addresses = addresses } }, err => this.snackBar.open('There was a problem getting your existing addresses.', 'Close', { duration: 8000 }) ); } setAddress(change: MatRadioChange) { this.setAddressEvent.emit(change.value); }

Here is its template. You can find its styling here.

<div id="container"> <p class="mat-headline">Pick an existing address</p> <mat-error ngIf="!addresses.length">You have no existing addresses</mat-error> <mat-radio-group ngIf="addresses.length" class="addresses" (change)="setAddress($event)"> <mat-card class="address" *ngFor="let address of addresses"> <mat-radio-button [value]="address.address?.id" color="primary"> <p>{{address.address?.firstName}} {{address.address?.lastName}},</p> <p>{{address.address?.line1}},</p> <p>{{address.address?.city}},</p> <p>{{address.address?.zipCode}},</p> <p>{{address.address?.stateCode}}, {{address.address?.countryCode}}</p> <p>{{address.address?.phone}}</p> </mat-radio-button> </mat-card> </mat-radio-group>


Customer Component

An order needs to be associated with an email address. This component is a form that captures the customer email address. When the component is initialized, the current customer’s email address is fetched if they are logged in. We get the customer from the CustomerService. If they do not wish to change their email address, this email will be the default value.

If the email is changed or a customer is not logged in, the order is updated with the inputted email. We use the OrderService to update the order with the new email address. If successful, we route the customer to the billing address page.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-customer', templateUrl: './customer.component.html', styleUrls: ['./customer.component.css']
export class CustomerComponent implements OnInit { email = new FormControl('', [Validators.required, Validators.email]); constructor( private orders: OrderService, private customers: CustomerService, private cart: CartService, private router: Router, private snackBar: MatSnackBar ) { } ngOnInit() { this.customers.getCurrentCustomer() .subscribe( customer => this.email.setValue(customer.email) ); } addCustomerEmail() { this.orders.updateOrder( { id: this.cart.orderId, customerEmail: this.email.value }, [UpdateOrderParams.customerEmail]) .subscribe( () => this.router.navigateByUrl('/billing-address'), err => this.snackBar.open('There was a problem adding your email to the order.', 'Close', { duration: 8000 }) ); }

Here is the component template and linked here is its styling.

<div id="container"> <app-title no="1" title="Customer" subtitle="Billing information and shipping address"></app-title> <mat-form-field appearance="outline"> <mat-label>Email</mat-label> <input matInput [formControl]="email" required> <mat-icon matPrefix>alternate_email</mat-icon> </mat-form-field> <button mat-flat-button color="primary" [disabled]="email.invalid" (click)="addCustomerEmail()"> PROCEED TO BILLING ADDRESS </button>

Here is a screenshot of the customer page.

Billing Address Component

The billing address component lets a customer either add a new billing address or pick from their existing addresses. Users who are not logged in have to input a new address. Those who have logged in get an option to pick between new or existing addresses.

The showAddress property indicates whether existing addresses should be shown on the component. sameShippingAddressAsBilling indicates whether the shipping address should be the same as what the billing address is set. When a customer selects an existing address, then its id is assigned to selectedCustomerAddressId.

When the component is initialized, we use the SessionService to check if the current user is logged in. If they are logged in, we will display their existing addresses if they have any.

As mentioned earlier, if a user is logged in, they can pick an existing address as their billing address. In the updateBillingAddress method, if they are logged in, the address they select is cloned and set as the order’s billing address. We do this by updating the order using the updateOrder method of the OrderService and supplying the address Id.

If they are not logged in, the user has to provide an address. Once provided, the address is created using the createAddress method. In it, the AddressService takes the input and makes the new address. After which, the order is updated using the id of the newly created address. If there is an error or either operation is successful, we show a snackbar.

If the same address is selected as a shipping address, the user is routed to the shipping methods page. If they’d like to provide an alternate shipping address, they are directed to the shipping address page.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-billing-address', templateUrl: './billing-address.component.html', styleUrls: ['./billing-address.component.css']
export class BillingAddressComponent implements OnInit { showAddresses: boolean = false; sameShippingAddressAsBilling: boolean = false; selectedCustomerAddressId: string = ''; constructor( private addresses: AddressService, private snackBar: MatSnackBar, private session: SessionService, private orders: OrderService, private cart: CartService, private router: Router, private customerAddresses: CustomerAddressService) { } ngOnInit() { this.session.loggedInStatus .subscribe( status => this.showAddresses = status ); } updateBillingAddress(address: Address) { if (this.showAddresses && this.selectedCustomerAddressId) { this.cloneAddress(); } else if (address.firstName && address.lastName && address.line1 && address.city && address.zipCode && address.stateCode && address.countryCode && address.phone) { this.createAddress(address); } else { this.snackBar.open('Check your address. Some fields are missing.', 'Close'); } } setCustomerAddress(customerAddressId: string) { this.selectedCustomerAddressId = customerAddressId; } setSameShippingAddressAsBilling(change: boolean) { this.sameShippingAddressAsBilling = change; } private createAddress(address: Address) { this.addresses.createAddress(address) .pipe( concatMap( address => { const update = this.updateOrderObservable({ id: this.cart.orderId, billingAddressId: address.id }, [UpdateOrderParams.billingAddress]); if (this.showAddresses) { return combineLatest([update, this.customerAddresses.createCustomerAddress(address.id || '', '')]); } else { return update; } })) .subscribe( () => this.showSuccessSnackBar(), err => this.showErrorSnackBar() ); } private cloneAddress() { this.updateOrderObservable({ id: this.cart.orderId, billingAddressCloneId: this.selectedCustomerAddressId }, [UpdateOrderParams.billingAddressClone]) .subscribe( () => this.showSuccessSnackBar(), err => this.showErrorSnackBar() ); } private updateOrderObservable(order: Order, updateParams: UpdateOrderParams[]): Observable<any> { return iif(() => this.sameShippingAddressAsBilling, concat([ this.orders.updateOrder(order, updateParams), this.orders.updateOrder(order, [UpdateOrderParams.shippingAddressSameAsBilling]) ]), this.orders.updateOrder(order, updateParams) ); } private showErrorSnackBar() { this.snackBar.open('There was a problem creating your address.', 'Close', { duration: 8000 }); } private navigateTo(path: string) { setTimeout(() => this.router.navigateByUrl(path), 4000); } private showSuccessSnackBar() { this.snackBar.open('Billing address successfully added. Redirecting...', 'Close', { duration: 3000 }); if (this.sameShippingAddressAsBilling) { this.navigateTo('/shipping-methods'); } else { this.navigateTo('/shipping-address'); } }

Here is the template. This link points to its styling.

<app-title no="2" title="Billing Address" subtitle="Address to bill charges to"></app-title>
<app-address-list ngIf="showAddresses" (setAddressEvent)="setCustomerAddress($event)"></app-address-list>
<mat-divider ngIf="showAddresses"></mat-divider>
<app-address [showTitle]="showAddresses" buttonText="PROCEED TO NEXT STEP" checkboxText="Ship to the same address" (isCheckboxChecked)="setSameShippingAddressAsBilling($event)" (createAddress)="updateBillingAddress($event)"></app-address>

This is what the billing address page will look like.

Shipping Address Component

The shipping address component behaves a lot like the billing address component. However, there are a couple of differences. For one, the text displayed on the template is different. The other key differences are in how the order is updated using the OrderService once an address is created or selected. The fields that the order updates are shippingAddressCloneId for selected addresses and shippingAddress for new addresses. If a user chooses to change the billing address, to be the same as the shipping address, the billingAddressSameAsShipping field is updated.

After a shipping address is selected and the order is updated, the user is routed to the shipping methods page.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-shipping-address', templateUrl: './shipping-address.component.html', styleUrls: ['./shipping-address.component.css']
export class ShippingAddressComponent implements OnInit { showAddresses: boolean = false; sameBillingAddressAsShipping: boolean = false; selectedCustomerAddressId: string = ''; constructor( private addresses: AddressService, private snackBar: MatSnackBar, private session: SessionService, private orders: OrderService, private cart: CartService, private router: Router, private customerAddresses: CustomerAddressService) { } ngOnInit() { this.session.loggedInStatus .subscribe( status => this.showAddresses = status ); } updateShippingAddress(address: Address) { if (this.showAddresses && this.selectedCustomerAddressId) { this.cloneAddress(); } else if (address.firstName && address.lastName && address.line1 && address.city && address.zipCode && address.stateCode && address.countryCode && address.phone) { this.createAddress(address); } else { this.snackBar.open('Check your address. Some fields are missing.', 'Close'); } } setCustomerAddress(customerAddressId: string) { this.selectedCustomerAddressId = customerAddressId; } setSameBillingAddressAsShipping(change: boolean) { this.sameBillingAddressAsShipping = change; } private createAddress(address: Address) { this.addresses.createAddress(address) .pipe( concatMap( address => { const update = this.updateOrderObservable({ id: this.cart.orderId, shippingAddressId: address.id }, [UpdateOrderParams.shippingAddress]); if (this.showAddresses) { return combineLatest([update, this.customerAddresses.createCustomerAddress(address.id || '', '')]); } else { return update; } })) .subscribe( () => this.showSuccessSnackBar(), err => this.showErrorSnackBar() ); } private cloneAddress() { this.updateOrderObservable({ id: this.cart.orderId, shippingAddressCloneId: this.selectedCustomerAddressId }, [UpdateOrderParams.shippingAddressClone]) .subscribe( () => this.showSuccessSnackBar(), err => this.showErrorSnackBar() ); } private updateOrderObservable(order: Order, updateParams: UpdateOrderParams[]): Observable<any> { return iif(() => this.sameBillingAddressAsShipping, concat([ this.orders.updateOrder(order, updateParams), this.orders.updateOrder(order, [UpdateOrderParams.billingAddressSameAsShipping]) ]), this.orders.updateOrder(order, updateParams) ); } private showErrorSnackBar() { this.snackBar.open('There was a problem creating your address.', 'Close', { duration: 8000 }); } private showSuccessSnackBar() { this.snackBar.open('Shipping address successfully added. Redirecting...', 'Close', { duration: 3000 }); setTimeout(() => this.router.navigateByUrl('/shipping-methods'), 4000); }

Here is the template and its styling can be found here.

<app-title no="3" title="Shipping Address" subtitle="Address to ship package to"></app-title>
<app-address-list ngIf="showAddresses" (setAddressEvent)="setCustomerAddress($event)"></app-address-list>
<mat-divider ngIf="showAddresses"></mat-divider>
<app-address [showTitle]="showAddresses" buttonText="PROCEED TO SHIPPING METHODS" checkboxText="Bill to the same address" (isCheckboxChecked)="setSameBillingAddressAsShipping($event)" (createAddress)="updateShippingAddress($event)"></app-address>

The shipping address page will look like this.

Shipping Methods Component

This component displays the number of shipments required for an order to be fulfilled, the available shipping methods, and their associated costs. The customer can then select a shipping method they prefer for each shipment.

The shipments property contains all the shipments of the order. The shipmentsForm is the form within which the shipping method selections will be made.

When the component is initialized, the order is fetched and will contain both its line items and shipments. At the same time, we get the delivery lead times for the various shipping methods. We use the OrderService to get the order and the DeliveryLeadTimeService for the lead times. Once both sets of information are returned, they are combined into an array of shipments and assigned to the shipments property. Each shipment will contain its items, the shipping methods available, and the corresponding cost.

After the user has selected a shipping method for each shipment, the selected shipping method is updated for each in setShipmentMethods. If successful, the user is routed to the payments page.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-shipping-methods', templateUrl: './shipping-methods.component.html', styleUrls: ['./shipping-methods.component.css']
export class ShippingMethodsComponent implements OnInit { shipments: Shipment[] | undefined = []; shipmentsForm: FormGroup = this.fb.group({}); constructor( private orders: OrderService, private dlts: DeliveryLeadTimeService, private cart: CartService, private router: Router, private fb: FormBuilder, private shipments: ShipmentService, private snackBar: MatSnackBar ) { } ngOnInit() { combineLatest([ this.orders.getOrder(this.cart.orderId, GetOrderParams.shipments), this.dlts.getDeliveryLeadTimes() ]).subscribe( ([lineItems, deliveryLeadTimes]) => { let li: LineItem; let lt: DeliveryLeadTime[]; this.shipments = lineItems.shipments?.map((shipment) => { if (shipment.id) { this.shipmentsForm.addControl(shipment.id, new FormControl('', Validators.required)); } if (shipment.lineItems) { shipment.lineItems = shipment.lineItems.map(item => { li = this.findItem(lineItems, item.skuCode || ''); item.imageUrl = li.imageUrl; item.name = li.name; return item; }); } if (shipment.availableShippingMethods) { lt = this.findLocationLeadTime(deliveryLeadTimes, shipment); shipment.availableShippingMethods = shipment.availableShippingMethods?.map( method => { method.deliveryLeadTime = this.findMethodLeadTime(lt, method); return method; }); } return shipment; }); }, err => this.router.navigateByUrl('/error') ); } setShipmentMethods() { const shipmentsFormValue = this.shipmentsForm.value; combineLatest(Object.keys(shipmentsFormValue).map( key => this.shipments.updateShipment(key, shipmentsFormValue[key]) )).subscribe( () => { this.snackBar.open('Your shipments have been updated with a shipping method.', 'Close', { duration: 3000 }); setTimeout(() => this.router.navigateByUrl('/payment'), 4000); }, err => this.snackBar.open('There was a problem adding shipping methods to your shipments.', 'Close', { duration: 5000 }) ); } private findItem(lineItems: LineItem[], skuCode: string): LineItem { return lineItems.filter((item) => item.skuCode == skuCode)[0]; } private findLocationLeadTime(times: DeliveryLeadTime[], shipment: Shipment): DeliveryLeadTime[] { return times.filter((dlTime) => dlTime?.stockLocation?.id == shipment?.stockLocation?.id); } private findMethodLeadTime(times: DeliveryLeadTime[], method: ShippingMethod): DeliveryLeadTime { return times.filter((dlTime) => dlTime?.shippingMethod?.id == method?.id)[0]; }

Here is the template and you can find the styling at this link.

<form id="container" [formGroup]="shipmentsForm"> <app-title no="4" title="Shipping Methods" subtitle="How to ship your packages"></app-title> <div class="shipment-container" ngFor="let shipment of shipments; let j = index; let isLast = last"> <h1>Shipment {{j+1}} of {{shipments?.length}}</h1> <div class="row" ngFor="let item of shipment.lineItems"> <img class="image-xs" [src]="item.imageUrl" alt="product photo"> <div id="shipment-details"> <h4 id="item-name">{{item.name}}</h4> <p>{{item.skuCode}}</p> </div> <div id="quantity-section"> <p id="quantity-label">Quantity: </p>{{item.quantity}} </div> </div> <mat-radio-group [formControlName]="shipment?.id || j"> <mat-radio-button ngFor="let method of shipment.availableShippingMethods" [value]="method.id"> <div class="radio-button"> <p>{{method.name}}</p> <div> <p class="radio-label">Cost:</p> <p> {{method.formattedPriceAmount}}</p> </div> <div> <p class="radio-label">Timeline:</p> <p> Available in {{method.deliveryLeadTime?.minDays}}-{{method.deliveryLeadTime?.maxDays}} days</p> </div> </div> </mat-radio-button> </mat-radio-group> <mat-divider ngIf="!isLast"></mat-divider> </div> <button mat-flat-button color="primary" [disabled]="shipmentsForm.invalid" (click)="setShipmentMethods()">PROCEED TO PAYMENT</button>

This is a screenshot of the shipping methods page.

Payments Component

In this component, the user clicks the payment button if they wish to proceed to pay for their order with Paypal. The approvalUrl is the Paypal link that the user is directed to when they click the button.

During initialization, we get the order with the payment source included using the OrderService. If a payment source is set, we get its id and retrieve the corresponding Paypal payment from the PaypalPaymentService. The Paypal payment will contain the approval url. If no payment source has been set, we update the order with Paypal as the preferred payment method. We then proceed to create a new Paypal payment for the order using the PaypalPaymentService. From here, we can get the approval url from the newly created order.

Lastly, when the user clicks the button, they are redirected to Paypal where they can approve the purchase.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-payment', templateUrl: './payment.component.html', styleUrls: ['./payment.component.css']
export class PaymentComponent implements OnInit { approvalUrl: string = ''; constructor( private orders: OrderService, private cart: CartService, private router: Router, private payments: PaypalPaymentService ) { } ngOnInit() { const orderId = this.cart.orderId; this.orders.getOrder(orderId, GetOrderParams.paymentSource) .pipe( concatMap((order: Order) => { const paymentSourceId = order.paymentSource?.id; const paymentMethod = order.availablePaymentMethods?.filter( (method) => method.paymentSourceType == 'paypal_payments' )[0]; return iif( () => paymentSourceId ? true : false, this.payments.getPaypalPayment(paymentSourceId || ''), this.orders.updateOrder({ id: orderId, paymentMethodId: paymentMethod?.id }, [UpdateOrderParams.paymentMethod]) .pipe(concatMap( order => this.payments.createPaypalPayment({ orderId: orderId, cancelUrl: ${environment.clientUrl}/cancel-payment, returnUrl: ${environment.clientUrl}/place-order }) )) ); })) .subscribe( paypalPayment => this.approvalUrl = paypalPayment?.approvalUrl || '', err => this.router.navigateByUrl('/error') ); } navigateToPaypal() { window.location.href = this.approvalUrl; }

Here is its template.

<app-simple-page number="5" title="Payment" subtitle="Pay for your order" buttonText="PROCEED TO PAY WITH PAYPAL" icon="point_of_sale" (buttonEvent)="navigateToPaypal()" [buttonDisabled]="approvalUrl.length ? false : true"></app-simple-page>

Here’s what the payments page will look like.

Cancel Payment Component

Paypal requires a cancel payment page. This component serves this purpose. This is its template.

<app-simple-page title="Payment cancelled" subtitle="Your Paypal payment has been cancelled" icon="money_off" buttonText="GO TO HOME" [centerText]="true" route="/"></app-simple-page>

Here’s a screenshot of the page.

Place Order Component

This is the last step in the checkout process. Here the user confirms that they indeed want to place the order and begin its processing. When the user approves the Paypal payment, this is the page they are redirected to. Paypal adds a payer id query parameter to the url. This is the user’s Paypal Id.

When the component is initialized, we get the payerId query parameter from the url. The order is then retrieved using the OrderService with the payment source included. The id of the included payment source is used to update the Paypal payment with the payer id, using the PaypalPayment service. If any of these fail, the user is redirected to the error page. We use the disableButton property to prevent the user from placing the order until the payer Id is set.

When they click the place-order button, the order is updated with a placed status. Afterwhich the cart is cleared, a successful snack bar is displayed, and the user is redirected to the home page.

@UntilDestroy({ checkProperties: true })
@Component({ selector: 'app-place-order', templateUrl: './place-order.component.html', styleUrls: ['./place-order.component.css']
export class PlaceOrderComponent implements OnInit { disableButton = true; constructor( private route: ActivatedRoute, private router: Router, private payments: PaypalPaymentService, private orders: OrderService, private cart: CartService, private snackBar: MatSnackBar ) { } ngOnInit() { this.route.queryParams .pipe( concatMap(params => { const payerId = params['PayerID']; const orderId = this.cart.orderId; return iif( () => payerId.length > 0, this.orders.getOrder(orderId, GetOrderParams.paymentSource) .pipe( concatMap(order => { const paymentSourceId = order.paymentSource?.id || ''; return iif( () => paymentSourceId ? paymentSourceId.length > 0 : false, this.payments.updatePaypalPayment(paymentSourceId, payerId) ); }) ) ); })) .subscribe( () => this.disableButton = false, () => this.router.navigateByUrl('/error') ); } placeOrder() { this.disableButton = true; this.orders.updateOrder({ id: this.cart.orderId, place: true }, [UpdateOrderParams.place]) .subscribe( () => { this.snackBar.open('Your order has been successfully placed.', 'Close', { duration: 3000 }); this.cart.clearCart(); setTimeout(() => this.router.navigateByUrl('/'), 4000); }, () => { this.snackBar.open('There was a problem placing your order.', 'Close', { duration: 8000 }); this.disableButton = false; } ); }

Here is the template and its associated styling.

<app-simple-page title="Finalize Order" subtitle="Complete your order" [number]="'6'" icon="shopping_bag" buttonText="PLACE YOUR ORDER" (buttonEvent)="placeOrder()" [buttonDisabled]="disableButton"></app-simple-page>

Here is a screenshot of the page.

App Module

All requests made to Commerce Layer, other than for authentication, need to contain a token. So the moment the app is initialized, a token is fetched from the /oauth/token route on the server and a session is initialized. We’ll use the APP_INITIALIZER token to provide an initialization function in which the token is retrieved. Additionally, we’ll use the HTTP_INTERCEPTORS token to provide the OptionsInterceptor we created earlier. Once all the modules are added the app module file should look something like this.

@NgModule({ declarations: [ AppComponent ], imports: [ BrowserModule, AppRoutingModule, HttpClientModule, BrowserAnimationsModule, AuthModule, ProductsModule, CartModule, CheckoutModule, CoreModule ], providers: [ { provide: HTTP_INTERCEPTORS, useClass: OptionsInterceptor, multi: true }, { provide: APP_INITIALIZER, useFactory: (http: HttpClient) => () => http.post<object>( ${environment.apiUrl}/oauth/token, { 'grantType': 'client_credentials' }, { withCredentials: true }), multi: true, deps: [HttpClient] } ], bootstrap: [AppComponent]
export class AppModule { }

App Component

We’ll modify the app component template and its styling which you can find here.

<div id="page"> <app-header></app-header> <div id="content"> <router-outlet></router-outlet> </div>


In this article, we’ve covered how you could create an e-commerce Angular 11 app with Commerce Layer and Paypal. We’ve also touched on how to structure the app and how you could interface with an e-commerce API.

Although this app allows a customer to make a complete order, it is not by any means finished. There is so much you could add to improve it. For one, you may choose to enable item quantity changes in the cart, link cart items to their product pages, optimize the address components, add additional guards for checkout pages like the place-order page, and so on. This is just the starting point.

If you’d like to understand more about the process of making an order from start to finish, you could check out the Commerce Layer guides and API. You can view the code for this project at this repository.

Investment Robust in Retail, Ecommerce Technology

The pandemic has posed obstacles for both brick-and-mortar and online merchants. Among the challenges are labor shortages, inventory problems, delivery conundrums, and the need for more personalization. New providers are addressing those needs, and venture capitalists and other investors are eager to fund them.

Record Investment

According to CB Insights, roughly $31 billion flowed from investors to retail (brick-and-mortar and ecommerce) technology firms in Q2 of 2021, an increase of about 4% over Q1 2021 and more than triple the amount from Q2 2020. A funding frenzy has materialized, culminating in larger funding rounds and higher valuations for the technology start-ups.

Ecommerce-specific enablers were the recipients of the top five deals worth more than $100 million in Q2. Food and grocery delivery companies are major investment targets as they anticipate that people will continue to shop online. Technology that enables mobile commerce also experienced a boost. Tools that optimize warehouse operations, delivery routes, and most anything along the supply chain will continue to be an avenue for investment because of continuing stress in the system.

Top Recipients

CB Insights reports that the following companies valued at $1 billion or higher received the most funding in the second quarter:

  • J&T Express is an Indonesian-based delivery service valued at $7.8 billion. Total funding to date is $1.93 billion.
  • Mollie, a Netherlands-based online payment company for ecommerce businesses, has a valuation of $6.5 billion. Total funding thus far is $934 million.
  • Back Market is a France-based online marketplace for refurbished consumer electronics and appliances, valued at $3.2 billion. Total funding to date is $511 million.
  • ContentSquare, also headquartered in France, provides analytics for ecommerce retailers and brands to track consumers’ behavior. It is valued at $2.8 billion.
  • Meesho, an Indian online marketplace, allows merchants to sell via WhatsApp, Facebook, and Instagram. Its valuation is $2.1 billion. Funding thus far is $491 million.

Platform Technology

Shogun, based in California, provides a platform to help ecommerce merchants design their own responsive storefronts. In June it raised $67.5 million in Series C funding. The money will be used to continue building out its two main products: Page Builder (a drag-and-drop tool for Shopify merchants) and Shogun Frontend (for headless commerce).

Talkshoplive is a live-stream social shopping platform out of California. Earlier this month, it raised $6 million in follow-on funding from VCs and angel investors. Celebrities such as Oprah Winfrey, Paul McCartney, Garth Brooks, and Dolly Parton use the platform, as do small businesses that host their own shopping channels.


In the brick-and-mortar arena, contactless checkout technology is receiving much funding as stores see this as a way to ease customer concerns about social distancing and to streamline checkouts.

Retailers are deploying cameras and artificial intelligence to track foot traffic, demographics, shopper behavior, and in-store marketing.

Zippin, a California-based provider of cashier-less checkout technology, turned to equity crowdfunding site OurCrowd to raise a second round in May. Zippin’s customers include stores in sports stadiums and airports in the U.S. and Japan.


Yalo, headquartered in California, received $50 million in May to fund its conversational commerce products. Yalo already enables commerce on WhatsApp and other messaging apps.

Tapcart, also based in California, offers a platform for developing mobile shopping apps. Shopify merchants, for example, can develop their own mobile apps using Tapcart. The company raised a Series C $50 million in May with Shopify as one of the investors.

Via, in California, received $15 million in Series A funding in June for its suite of mobile ecommerce tools.


Brinng, based in Israel, raised $100 million in June to continue developing last-mile delivery tools for dispatch and routing, click and collect, and fleet management.

Locus, headquartered in India, raised $50 million in June to further develop its last mile
logistics platform that provides real-time tracking, warehouse management, and vehicle
allocation solutions.